• Ethical Decision Making: A Novel Perspective to a Long-Standing Issue for Undergraduate Education

      Celuch, Kevin; Jones, Aleisha
      Research Question and Context This research extends understanding of self-regulatory processes involved in ethical decision-making for undergraduate students. Specifically, we examine the effects of an in-class manipulation consisting of ethical scenarios designed to stimulate a counterfactual (“what if”) mindset to impact negative emotion, ethical judgment, and intention to behave unethically. This research addresses both theoretical and practical imperatives in the scholarship of teaching and learning literature. The specific research question addressed is: Can educators use counterfactual thinking to more effectively advance undergraduate students’ ethical decision-making? Grounding What are the themes in the scholarship of teaching and learning literature for teaching ethics? There is a clearly articulated call to address ethics in undergraduate education.  However, exactly how to do this is less clear.  While experiential learning is a favored approach (c.f., Loe & Ferell, 2001; Hunt & Laverie, 2004; Neil & Scribrowsky, 2005; Allan & Wood, 2009; Beggs, 2011), results have been mixed (c.f., Yoo & Donthu, 2002; Waples et al., 2009; Lau, 2010) resulting in a “how can we do better?” theme (c.f., Mele, 2005; Allan & Wood, 2009; Lund Dean et al., 2010; Beggs, 2011). Approach/Methods Two hundred and sixty-two undergraduate students enrolled in a range of business classes at a USI participated in this research. In keeping with counterfactual methodology (c.f., Kray et al., 2006), the study manipulated a situational element (“hands off” or “hands on” immediate supervisor) for one of two ethical scenarios in business contexts.  Participants were provided a packet that consisted of, in order, one of two scenarios which included the manipulation, followed by related measures, followed by another scenario that did not include the manipulation, and a second set of measures that were different from those associated with the first scenario. Students responded to measurement items immediately after reading each scenario. Discussion/Lessons Learned                 In terms of educational interventions, the manipulation of a mindset (through in-class scenarios) had significant effects on emotion, ethical judgment, and intention to behave unethically. Our reasoning was that participants who were exposed to the “hands on” manipulation in the first scenario would perceive stronger likelihoods of negative consequences which, in turn, would prime a prevention-focused mindset that would then be carried over to consideration of the second scenario. Further, negative emotion was found to be a strong predictor of ethical judgment and the perception of negative consequences (from the first scenario) was found to moderate the effect of negative affect on intention to behave unethically (for the second scenario). As noted in the counterfactual literature, this approach represents a more unobtrusive way to impact behavior (Liljenquist et al., 2004) which is consistent with observations that students may learn ethics better (with less reactivity) under less intrusive approaches (Beggs, 2011). References Allan, D., & Wood, N.T. (2009). Incorporating ethics into the marketing communications class: A case of old Joe and new Joe Camel. Marketing Education Review, 19 (3), 63-71. Beggs, J. M. (2011). Seamless integration of ethics. Marketing Education Review, 21 (1), 49-55. Hunt, S.D., & Laverie, D.A. (2004). Experiential learning and the Hunt-Vitell Theory of Ethics: teaching marketing ethics by integrating theory and practice. Marketing Education Review, 14 (3), 9-15. Kray, L., Galinsky, A.D., & Wong, E.M. (2006). Thinking within the box: The relational processing style elicited by counterfactual mind-sets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 33-48. Lau, C.L.L. (2010). A step forward: Ethics education matters! Journal of Business Ethics, 92 (4), 565-584. Liljenquist, K.A., Galinsky, A.D., & Kray, L.J. (2004). Exploring the rabbit hole of possibilities by myself or with my group: The benefits and liabilities of activating counterfactual mind-sets for information sharing and group coordination. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 17, 263-279. Loe, T.W., & Ferell, L. (2001). Teaching marketing ethics in the 21st century. Marketing Education Review, 11 (2), 1-16. Lund Dean, K., Beggs, J. M., & Keane, T. P. (2010). Mid-level managers, organizational context, and (un)ethical encounters. Journal of Business Ethics, 97 (1), 51-69. Mele, D. (2005). Ethical education in accounting: integrating rules, values and virtues. Journal of Business Ethics, 57 (1), 97-109. Neil, A., & Schibrowsky, J.A. (2005). The impact of corporate culture, the reward system, and perceived moral intensity on marketing students’ ethical decision making. Journal of Marketing Education, 27 (1), 68-80. Waples, E.P., Antes, A.L., Murphy, S.T., Connelly, S., & Mumford, M.D. (2009). A meta-analytic investigation of business ethics instruction. Journal of Business Ethics, 87 (1), 133-151. Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2002). The effects of marketing education and individual cultural values on marketing ethics of students. Journal of Marketing Education, 24 (2), 92-103.
    • The Role of Resilience in Entrepreneurship Student Intentions to Start a Business

      Celuch, Kevin; Jones, Aleisha
      Approach/Methods Our sample consisted of five hundred and nine undergraduate students enrolled in several different entrepreneurship programs in the U.S.  Multiple programs employing experientially based learning were included by design as our objective was to explore student learning processes and not the influence of any one specific pedagogical technique (c.f., Liguori & Vanevenhoven, 2013).  All subjects were provided a questionnaire packet to complete in person at the end of the semester that included relevant measures.  The reliability and validity of measures were tested and supported.  The sequence of effects was modeled for resilience, self-efficacy, identity, and intention (along with controlling for gender, prior start-up and failure experience) (c.f., Hayes, 2013; Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes 2007; Duchek, 2018). Discussion/Lessons Resilience was found to have significant indirect and direct effects on entrepreneurial efficacy perceptions and identity in explaining student start-up intentions.  The model is parsimonious and explained 50% of the variability in start-up intention which compares very favorably with prior models in the literature.  In terms of educational interventions, it appears that resilience is a resource that is important in the learning “chain of effects” for entrepreneurial students (and probably implicated in the learning of students in other applied/professional programs that require coping with unexpected events).  Our findings are consistent with the work of Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker (2000) and imply that resilience should be viewed as part of a dynamic learning process and not purely as an immutable trait.  Resilience has been conceptualized as a dynamic construct that can be encouraged (Fletcher & Sarkar, 2013).  This research answers the call for studies of resilience in entrepreneurial education (Gonzalez-Lopez, Perez-Lopez, & Rodriguez-Ariza, 2019) and “sets the stage” for future research in the scholarship of teaching and learning exploring antecedents and classroom interventions than bolster student resilience. References Duchek, S., (2018). Entrepreneurial resilience: a biographical analysis of successful entrepreneurs. International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 14, 429-455. Fletcher, D., & M. Sarkar, (2013). Psychological resilience: a review and critique of definitions, concepts, and theory. European Psychologist, 18 (1), 12-23. Gonzalez-Lopez, M.J., M.C. Perez-Lopez, & L. Rodriguez-Ariza, (2019). Clearing the hurdles in the entrepreneurial race: the role of resilience in entrepreneurship education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 18 (3), 457-483. Hayes, A. F., (2013). Introduction to meditation, moderation, and conditional process analysis, Builford Press, New York, NY. Korber, S., & R.B. McNaughton, (2017). Resilience and entrepreneurship: a systematic literature review, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 24 (7), 1129-1154. Liguori, E., & J. Vanevenhoven, (2013). The impact of entrepreneurship education: introducing the entrepreneurship education project. Journal of Small Business Management, 51 (3), 315-328. Luthar, S.S., D. Cicchetti, & B. Becker, (2000). The construct of resilience a critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development,71 (3), 543-562. Preacher, K. J., D.D. Rucker, & A.F. Hayes, (2007). Addressing moderated meditation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185-227.