• A Case Study in Deploying Experiential Learning in Fast Paced, Large Online Classroom Environment

      Bačić, Dinko
      Online education is rapidly gaining momentum in higher education. Online delivery mode is especially gaining tractions with professionals looking to further their career by obtaining Master of Business Administration degree. This student segment is actively seeking for flexible learning environment to allow them to successfully balance professional career, family commitments and school obligations. Furthermore, they expect immediate benefit and practical application of newly acquired knowledge in their professional life. On the other hand, MBA granting institutions are meeting the growing demand by introducing programs and courses allowing for large enrollments (30 -250) and intensive/shorter duration (7-8 weeks). The faculty is under pressure to deliver intensive, practical, rigorous, and scalable courses. Information Visualization & Dashboarding course was offered as a newly created course in USI's rapidly growing online MBA; data analytics track. This seven-week course could meet its five main objectives by adopting highly structured experiential learning. Experiential learning is the process of learning through reflection on doing (Kolb 1984). While the value and need for experiential learning in business programs is noted in higher education (McCarthy & McCarthy 2006), successful implementation in 100% online and intensive environment that requires acquisition of technology skill to allow for 'doing' is rare. The course was delivered to 44 students of various backgrounds though 7 modules, each consisting of module overview, 6 lessons, lesson quizzes, module exam & experiential hands-on assignment with brief reflection. All instructional materials (videos, readings and assessments) were highly customized, closely coupled and reinforcing each other. The emphasis was placed on practical value of the content and immediate applicability. Students were provided the avenue for continued feedback on course structure and effectiveness. Early feedback suggests this is one of most intensive (15-20+ hours of work per week), practical and effective courses in the MBA curriculum. Early indication is that this course structure can scale to hundreds of students with incremental investment in academic coaches and technology mentoring. Kolb, D (1984). Experiential Learning as the Science of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. McCarthy, P. R., & McCarthy, H. M. (2006). When Case Studies Are Not Enough: Integrating Experiential Learning Into Business Curricula. Journal of Education for Business, 81(4), 201-204.
    • Broadening career opportunities and breaking down stereotypes: Correctional facility tours and the criminal justice student

      Stacer, Melissa J.
      Students' negative perceptions of inmates are a challenging aspect of teaching criminal justice. It is not uncommon to hear an "us versus them" dichotomy when criminal offenders are discussed. Despite an abundance of television and "infotainment" shows introducing correctional facilities to the public, these facilities and those living and working within remain largely unknown and subject to negative stereotypes. Some scholars suggest exposing students to the criminal justice system may provide a realistic approach to understanding offenders and those who work within the system. Correctional facility tours are one way to create this real-life exposure. In two courses, CRIM 234 Introduction to Corrections and CRIM 370 Prisons, attending a jail or prison tour and writing a 500-word essay reflecting on the tour are course requirements. The original goal was to expose students to the criminal justice system in action and to allow students an opportunity to correct inaccurate perceptions. Beginning in 2014, I began conducting research to assess the effects of the correctional tours on students. This included a pre-test/post-test design wherein students were asked to complete a survey with Likert items and open-ended items before and after attending a prison or jail tour. Students were also asked if I could use their essay for research. This study was approved by the IRB, and data were collected in the Spring 2014, Fall 2014, and Spring 2015 semesters. Correctional tours are quite popular across criminal justice curricula, but competing perspectives exist on the impact of these tours on students. Some scholars illustrated the positive impacts, such as being able to apply concepts (Brown, 2001, Helfgott, 2003), being able to link class material to the real world (Smith et al., 2010), and changing prejudicial attitudes (Boag & Wilson, 2013). Other scholars (Payne, Sumter, & Sun, 2013) argue these tours are often seen by students as entertainment and thus are not educative, and illustrate issues with tours being "staged" and that inmates are objectified (Piche & Walby, 2010). The results of the study were both expected and unexpected. As expected, most students wrote about the influence of the media on their perceptions of corrections and revealed holding stereotypes about those who work and are confined in correctional facilities. Unexpected were results indicating that students reported more positive attitudes towards correctional staff after attending the correctional tour, and in their essays many students discussed how correctional careers were something they would now would consider.
    • Combined Flipped Classroom and Experiential Learning in an Exercise Testing and Prescription Course

      Weatherholt, Alyssa
      Focus/Problem statement: There was a lot of content and application of the content to be covered in a three-hour course. Context: The course was Exercise Testing and Prescription in the exercise science program at Franklin College. The course objectives were: Students will be able to implement appropriate protocols for pre-participation, health screening and health-related assessment. Students will be able to evaluate data from assessments and provide safe exercise prescriptions for various populations. Students will be able to counsel clients on behavior change mechanisms. Students will be able to use industry benchmarks to promote fitness management resources. Approach: I used a combined flipped classroom and experiential learning approach (Bishop & Verleger, 2013). The flipped classroom approach was before each class session students watched lectures and measurement techniques and took quizzes on the online course site. In class, I briefly summarized the lecture, but during the rest of the session the students worked in groups doing the various activities from the lecture. The experiential learning approach was each student was assigned to a community member to schedule eight meetings to do before and after exercise assessments and six personal training sessions. The experiential learning was assessed by the documentation of the exercise sessions and one observation of a session. The students were also tested on content three times and a practical exam during the semester. Reflection/Discussion: I learned that students did well on the application of the content when working in groups and doing the skill on an outside individual several times. The most unexpected outcome from the combined teaching techniques were the students did not do well on the exams. I suggest not doing the lectures online but rather do lecture tutorials combined with group activities and working with a community member outside of class (LoPresto & Slater, 2016).
    • Course Design: Mapping the Course

      Beckham, Roxanne; Reidford, Kathy; Hall, Melissa
      Focus: A map, or grid, has historically been utilized to design and represent an academic program curriculum. A course map, evolved from the program curriculum map model, provides a visual checklist to support online course development. Context: A graduate level course must be designed to meet professional accreditation standards, best practice standards, and the diverse learning needs of the students. The ideal course map design flows in a well thought out manner that addresses all crucial topical components while avoiding non-essential components or redundancies. The well detailed course map clearly reflects how each course objective is linked to specific practice standards. In addition, each course assignment, which can be designed in a flexible manner to meet unique student needs, is defined by the specific course learning objectives to be achieved. Approach: The course map is designed by faculty to serve as a convenient visual representation for the student to link overall course objectives to course assignments. The course map, presented to the student along with the course syllabus, also displays the weighted percentage for each assignment from the potential total score of the course so students can easily identify topical priorities. Discussion: The course map is currently being used with several online graduate nursing courses. During spring semester 2017, student in the graduate level nursing informatics course will be given an assignment to interact with the course map to design a learning objective specific to the chosen nursing specialty. This mapping process is also being introduced to all nursing faculty during an end of semester retreat.
    • Developing Career Ready Skills Through a Service Learning Project in a Exercise Course

      Weatherholt, Alyssa
      Context: Two sections of the course Program Design for Healthy and Special Populations in the USI's exercise science program. There were a total of about 20 students per section. The course objectives were: Recognize the characteristics of individuals with various disabilities and chronic diseases. Describe the specific effects of various disabilities and chronic diseases will have on exercise testing and training. Perform exercise testing on various populations with knowledge of specific recommendations and special considerations. Create and present exercise programs directed at specific special populations Approach: I assigned a common service learning project within my classroom. Service learning is a common teaching approach in the health professions majors where the faculty and students partner up with a community member that is in need of services (1). The students then reflect about the services they provided to the community partner (1). In my classroom, I partnered with Jacobs Village who were in need of volunteers to provide exercise to their community. Jacobs Village is community with residential appartments and group homes for individuals with intellectual disabilities and lower socioeconomic older adults. The students enrolled in the course worked in groups of 2-4 people to provide 10 exercise sessions to those residents at their community center. I was also present during each session to observe the students providing exercise for the Jacobs Village residents. After each exercise session, the students turned in the exercise prescription and answered four questions to reflect about the exercise session. The students also completed 3 exams. Results:  Based on the reflections, exams and my observations over the 10 sessions, the students grew by becoming more confident and did well in their skills for prescribing and executing an exercise program. I also observed them communicating better with their client over the 10 sessions. Reference: 1. Seifer, S.D. (1998). Service-learning: Community-campus partnerships for health professions education.  Academic Medicine, 73(3)273-277
    • Education Majors and their Views about Physical Science: Searching for Shifts in Epistemological Beliefs after an Intensive Introductory Physics Course

      Polak, Jeffrey M.
      Education majors at the University of Southern Indiana must take a complement of 100 level courses in the physical and life sciences (PHYS 108, CHEM 108, BIOL 108, and GEOL 108). PHYS 108 serves as the first course in this required science sequence and was designed and implemented with a focus on content delivery and active-learning approaches in a combined lecture/laboratory environment. These ‘for educators’ courses are, for many students, the only college-level science courses that they will take. An important aspect of these courses should therefore be the understanding and appreciation of scientific investigation as a useful and important process for understanding the world around us. In order to gauge how the course affects students’ views about physical science and the nature of scientific knowledge, the Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science (EBAPS) survey was administered to four sections of PHYS 108 as both a pre- and post-test in order to capture any shift in student beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning in the physical sciences. Data from this validated survey instrument will be examined and used to propose modifications to the course content and/or structure and direct further course development.
    • Eight Professions, 18 teams, One Goal

      Ostendorf, Marilyn J.; Kinner, Tracy J; Rinks, Bonnie; Swenty, Connie; Litney, Thomas J
      With the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, interprofessional education (IPE) was endorsed by the federal government. Colleges and universities were charged to train health care professional students to work collaboratively to improve client outcomes, contain or decrease healthcare costs, and increase client satisfaction. The College of Nursing and Health Professions received a federal grant from Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to train student to work in interprofessional teams. Students from eight professions formed 18 teams with one goal to learn to work collaboratively in effective interprofessional teams. They were placed in local nurse led health clinics located in local title one elementary schools, and the Veterans Administration health clinics. Each team was under the direction of a faculty member who served as a clinical coach.  The students were from The College of Nursing and Health Professions and the Social Work Program in The College of Liberal Arts. While most will agree that IPE is important, significant barriers exist which impact student learning. Student challenges included inadequate IPE team training, workload/schedule challenges, student program size, lack of appreciation of IPE value, and knowledge deficit of other healthcare disciplines.  Faculty addressed each challenge by developing an IPE curriculum using as a framework the IPE core competencies and a federal program entitled "TeamSTEPPS". Over the course of three years, students from the eight professions were surveyed using two questionaires: The Teamwork Attitude Questionaire (T-TAQ) and the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool (CPAT). T-TAQ results demonstrated that student communication among teams significantly increased. The CPAT, divided into subscales of team structure, general role responsibilities, autonomy, communication & information exchange, community linkages & coordination of care, decision making & conflict management, and patient involvment were all statistically significant. Prior to this project, students had little if any exposure to working interprofessionally. This project allowed students the opportunity to participate as interprofessional team members and witness the impact of teamwork on patient outcomes.  Quarterly focus group discussions revealed students gained an appreciation for other disciplines' roles in holistic, comprehensive care.  The goal of working collaboratively and effectively as interprofessional team members was realized by the students. Successfully integrating IPE into healthcare curricula empowered healthcare students to develop and engage as effective interprofessional teams members as they transition into the workforce.
    • Enhancing Critical Thinking for Students in the Undergraduate Bachelor Program

      Melchior, Lynne; Evans, Jennifer; Doerner, Mary
      Focus/Problem State: Critical thinking for nurses involves the ability to logically connect ideas and evaluate evidence to systematically identify irregularities and problem solve to support optimal patient outcomes. These skills are often difficult for the novice nursing student to obtain. Critical thinking requires students to use the information they have previously learned and connect to relevant patient scenarios.  The inability to do this, may hinder the student’s progression in the nursing curriculum. Promoting critical thinking skills involves faculty to employ teaching strategies requiring students to be actively engaged and involved in decision making. Context: Analysis of the early undergraduate medical/surgical nursing courses, revealed a need to improve teaching strategies than would enhance the development of appropriate critical thinking skills. The extensive amount of content delivered in an eight week course limited students' ability to develop strong critical thinking skills. Students reported some content was difficult to apply in clinical scenarios, which hindered their ability to critically think through those particular exam questions. The revelation of a knowledge deficit regarding appropriate study habits and test taking skills reinforced the need for more active learning strategies to be demonstrated within the classroom. Approach: Three nursing course coordinators strategized on how to incorporate multimodal learning styles into the classroom setting to enhance critical thinking skills. Using the Constructivism Theory faculty developed active learning experiences allowing students to connect course content to clinical scenarios. Examples included concept mapping to deliver class content and enhance critical thinking. Another strategy was a kinesthetic activity engaging students in hypothetical urgent situation requiring them to respond and problem solve to ensure “patient” safety. This modality allowed the learners to analyze their knowledge and apply it to the experience/scenario.  Building upon these activities, a Venn diagram was utilized to reflect the similarities between the two types of diabetes, and differentiate the pathophysiological processes.  Reflection/Discussion: Utilizing different teaching methods within the classroom setting has fostered the development of students’ critical thinking skills. In addition, it was fascinating to see the students "become a nurse" during the kinesthetic activity. During the kinesthetic debriefing students realized how much they knew and were able to unknowingly apply in the scenario. Reflecting on these strategies, faculty recognized a need to continue and further develop methods actively engaging students in the classroom promoting critical thinking.
    • How I Flip my Accounting Class

      Seitz, Jamie
      Why do Accounting students have issues connecting accounting theory to assessments?  The flipped classroom models allow the instructor to be present during seat time to connect the lecture to homework. How does it work?  As with most classes involving numerical problems, example problem sets are often utilized to reinforce accounting theory.  All lectures are pre-recorded using Panopto and/or VoiceThread (lectures are approximately 15-25 minutes in length).  Students are required to take a pre-test in My Accounting Lab (homework management software) for participation points only.  This assessment is used to gauge the initial level of knowledge and introduce students to the topics and vocabulary.  Students are encouraged to read the textbook and review all recorded lectures for the chapter before coming to class at the beginning of the week.  The first 50 minutes of class are used to review the theory for the week.  The second 50 minutes are used to work examples previously selected by the instructor.  The last 50 minutes of the week are used for assigned homework in My Accounting Lab.  The instructor walks around and individually helps students with specific issues in homework.  If the instructor recognizes a deficiency in the majority of the students, then time is used to reinforce the topic(s).  By using this model, the instructor hopes the students gain confidence inside and outside the classroom, become more successful in accounting, and use time more efficiently.  Student comments on the flipped classroom model are positive.  Most student like the individual one on one time with the instructor and feel connected to the class.  
    • Inquiry-Based Abstract Algebra: An Approach for Students of Varying Preparation

      Besing, Kyle E.
      There is currently a push for an increase in active-learning in post-secondary math and science classes. The benefits of this style are discussed in the Freeman report1 and advocated for in the recent Joint Statement on Active Learning2 from CBMS. In order to increase the amount of active-learning taking place at Kentucky Wesleyan College (KWC), An Inquiry-Based Approach to Abstract Algebra, a set of notes written by Dana C. Ernst at Northern Arizona University, were adopted as the text for the Fall 2016 Abstract Algebra course. Dr. Ernst’s notes were designed to be taught using the Modified Moore Method. As with many small liberal arts colleges and universities, our upper-level math courses are taught on a two-year rotation. The students in these courses can vary significantly in their prior mathematical preparation and knowledge. This particular course consisted of four students, none of which had previously experienced inquiry-based learning (IBL), ranging from a graduating senior to a junior transfer student currently completing the calculus sequence. Given that the Modified Moore Method is designed for classes with similar preparation and prior knowledge on the subject matter, further modifications to the method were introduced throughout the semester in an effort to ensure an effective learning environment for each student. In this talk, I will describe my experience introducing IBL in this setting. I will describe the challenges and advantages observed related to IBL and small class sizes. Further, this talk will include a discussion of the modifications that were made to make the course accessible for the entire class and the increase in performance and confidence I have witnessed throughout the semester in these students.
    • Interprofessional Peer-to-Peer Teaching

      Bonhotal, Susan; Kilbane, Janet; Seibert, Susan; Mason, Jessica; Bartek, Jennifer
      Focus: The purpose of this project was to promote interprofessional education by developing a relationship between first semester nursing students and second year Master’s level occupational therapy (MSOT) students as well as between first semester nursing students and first year dental hygiene students. The focus was implementation of peer-to-peer teaching. Interprofessional education is a universal means to facilitate relationships, develop collaboration, and promote communication between health care professionals. Context: First semester baccalaureate nursing in the Introduction to Professional Nursing course at a public university were introduced to interprofessional peer-to-peer teaching while learning basic nursing skills. Approach: Peer-to-peer teaching was endorsed by the Institute of Medicine (2003) as a method to improve the overall quality of health care. The project was implemented for basic nursing skills modules focusing on activity/immobility and oral hygiene. The MSOT students and dental hygiene students served as peer teachers, leaders, and role models, instructing and coaching 97 nursing students during two hour skills labs. MSOT students demonstrated and instructed activity and immobility skills including: gait belts, assisting patients out of bed, walking with crutches, walkers and canes, mechanical lifts, and transferring patients. The dental hygiene students demonstrated and instructed oral hygiene skills including brushing and flossing teeth. Results: The interprofessional peer-to-peer teaching was successfully implemented as noted by instructor observation of skill attainment and anecdotal narratives of student development of mutual respect for one another’s profession. Discussion: Faculty plan to continue the activity
    • Numbers Are Scary

      Shifflet, Mary Ann
      Many students find quantitative courses challenging and give up almost before they start.  Sometimes that fear can prevent students from being successful even when the actual material is not that difficult.  How do we help students over this hurdle of being afraid of numbers?  There is not one solution that will help every student, but there are many solutions that may help some students.  This talk will illustrate several technology tools that can be used to give students bite-sized chunks of important material for review and maybe give them a little more confidence in their quantitative abilities.  The Lightboard Studio in the Romain College of Business allows instructors to create short teaching or review videos that students can watch any number of times, if necessary.  This state of the art technology is an easily implemented tool that has broad application for quantitative and non-quantitative content.   A second technology tool is JMP® statistical software available to all students and faculty on campus.  The use of this easy to use software in courses with even a small statistical component can allow students to focus on using the statistics, rather than calculating statistical values.  A third tool is the use of simulations to teach challenging concepts like the Central Limit Theorem, sampling distributions, or the real meaning of confidence intervals.  Any of these tools can be incorporated in courses that are totally quantitative or courses that require small modules that are quantitative.  In today’s data driven world our students more than ever need quantitative skills and literacy.  Students who fully engage the technology tools, both in the classroom and outside the classroom, perform better in the course than those who do not.    
    • Nursing Student Led CPR Training for High School Students

      Hunt, Jean; St. Clair, Julie; Connerton, Charlotte
      In 2014, House Bill 1202, authored by Representative Ron Bacon, became law.  This bill mandated that high school students receive instruction in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) prior to graduation.  The University of Southern Indiana nursing program partnered with the Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation (EVSC) to meet this requirement.  The EVSC purchased the ‘CPR in Schools’ program which includes a video, handouts, and simple, lightweight manikins.  Hands-Only CPR was the method chosen to teach to the high school students.  This course eliminates mouth-to-mouth ventilation making it simple and increasing the likelihood that rescuers will come to the aid of a cardiopulmonary arrest victim.  Nursing students enrolled in the Population Focused Nursing Practice course received training in teaching “Hands-Only CPR.”   This activity integrates service learning with the practice of teaching.  Evidence has proven that service learning is an educational practice which strengthens integration of key course objectives, improves student understanding of community and social issues, and influences the initiation of civic action.  In 2008 the University of Southern Indiana received recognition and was classified as a Community Engagement University by the  Carnegie Foundation.  This recognition is used in self-assessment and quality improvement by the university and is reassessed by the Carnegie Foundation on a five year cycle. Community engagement is defined by the foundation as collaboration between institutions of higher education and their larger communities for the mutually beneficial exchange of knowledge and resources in a context of partnership and reciprocity.    Since 2015, USI nursing students have taught nearly 3500 high school students how to perform “Hands-Only CPR.” In a study conducted during the EVSC school year 2016-2017, 25 USI nursing students taught Hands-Only CPR to local high school students.  Assessment of a before and after perceptions of the nursing students’ teaching event yielded positive results. The results showed significant improvement in the students' perception of their teaching ability to include demonstration of CPR, use of appropriate teaching strategies, and achievement of learning outcomes.  This experience not only provides the student with increased confidence in the important nursing role of teaching but is routinely mentioned on evaluations as a gratifying and a highly valued/favored experience for achieving learning outcomes. The EVSC frequently expresses their gratitude for the assistance provided by the university in providing this life-saving, required education to high school students in our community.
    • Online synchronous virtual classroom: How to decrease student anxiety and increase engagement

      Dillingham, Jara
      An online synchronous virtual classroom can create anxiety and apprehension in students. Through strategic approaches, students can increase connection and engagement and decrease their anxiety.  SOCW402:  Social Work Practice I and SOCW412: Social Work Practice II are seminar courses senior BSW students take concurrently while completing their required internship. Online synchronous sections of these courses have allowed students the opportunity to complete their internship in geographic areas outside of the surrounding campus communities. It has broadened their internship opportunities, yet created some anxiety in taking an online synchronous seminar course. Research into effective online instruction reveals the importance of having a strong presence of the instructor as well as creating online active learning opportunities that are collaborative in nature. Research also indicates quality online instruction can be just as effective as face to face instruction in the classroom (Dixson, 2010). Through several years of teaching this synchronous format and evaluating student feedback, key areas have emerged that help to decrease anxiety in students and increase connection and student engagement. The first thing is to recognize there are actually more similarities than differences between learning in a traditional classroom and learning in a synchronous online format. Students are required to be on time, limit distractions, come prepared with textbook (and reliable technology), prepared for class discussion/content, and be actively engaged.  These expectations can be accomplished regardless of face-to-face classroom or whether face-to-face through the use of a video-conferencing application. Choosing the correct web based video-conferencing application is important. When students view the application as easy to access and use, the interactions between student and instructor and student to student becomes second nature. Other keys to a successful synchronous online course include:  availability of the instructor, creating a detailed syllabus and a well-designed Blackboard course, providing clear expectations both in writing and verbally at the beginning of the semester and emphasized throughout the course, as well as the thoughtful designing of discussions and activities to encourage group-centered interactions. The outcomes of being diligent in these practices has resulted in students indicating the courses set high standards of practice and required active participation; and students indicating they felt connected to the instructor and fellow students. Students have overwhelming indicated the web based synchronous virtual classroom was a positive experience for them in completing their internship and BSW degree. Dixson, M. D. (2010, June). Creating effective student engagement in online courses: What do students find engaging? Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning,10(2), 1-13. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
    • Student perceptions of low-tech options for engagement and assessment

      Schmuck, Heather; Cook, Joy
      The research question for this study was ‘What are Students’ perceptions regarding the use of dry erase whiteboards in the classroom as it relates to engagement, formative assessment and learning?’. The focus for the study was to explore whether utilizing a simple ‘low-tech’ option in the classroom provided adequate engagement and assessment from both the student and faculty perspective. By increasing student engagement, the researchers expect higher student learning as evidenced by literature. This study took place in the Radiologic & Imaging sciences traditional courses in an in-class setting. The targeted learning outcomes were increased student engagement and student assessment of individual learning styles as well as faculty assessment of student learning. Multiple authors suggest that utilizing dry erase boards can be an effective method of student engagement (Conderman, Bresnahan, and Hedin, 2011; West, Sullivan, Kirchner, 2016). Research for interactive whiteboards and their use exist for higher education, but little research was found using individual dry erase whiteboards as a ‘low-tech’ method of assessment from a student perspective in a small collegiate classroom. There is a large volume of evidence for utilizing audience response systems both in quizzes and throughout lecture and authors suggest that such forms of engagement promote engagement and learning but come with a material cost (Clauson, Alkhateeb, & Singh-Franco, 2012; Cotes, S., & Cotua, J. 2014; Costello, 2010). This IRB approved study used a single post-survey of students’ perceptions of using low cost dry erase whiteboards in the classroom. Two cohorts of students that have been utilizing individual small dry erase whiteboards in the classroom were surveyed. Student perceptions, correlation analysis of identified survey questions, and recurring themes from the short answer responses will be discussed. The researchers learned that this low-cost, low-tech method of student assessment was well received by students who were in overall agreement with every surveyed item. A strong correlation was noted between two survey items related to student assessment indicating that students perceived a positive benefit from the use of this teaching pedagogy related to self-reflection. Faculty noted active engagement from all students within the class rather than just a few students actively answering oral questions. No unexpected outcomes were noted. Others could adapt this teaching strategy with low-tech technology in small classes by purchasing simple dry-erase boards for their classroom and implementing throughout lecture or discussion to conduct assessment of student learning. At the same time, students could utilize responses from the class and discussion that follows in order to identify strengths and weaknesses in their learning and knowledge retention. References  Clauson, K. A., Alkhateeb, F. M., & Singh-Franco, D. (2012). Concurrent use of an audience response system at a multi-campus college of pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(1), 1-6. Retrieved from https://login.lib-proxy.usi.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1021175579?accountid=14752 Conderman, G., Bresnahan, V., & Hedin, L. (2011). Promoting Active Involvement in Today's Classrooms. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 47(4), 174-180. Cotes, S., & Cotua, J. (2014). Using audience response systems during interactive lectures to promote active learning and conceptual understanding of stoichiometry. Journal of Chemical Education, 91, 5, 673-677. https://doi.org/10.1021/ed400111m Costello, P. (2010). A cost-effective classroom response system. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(6), E153-E154. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01118.x West, A., Sullivan, K., & Kirchner, J. (2016). HOW ABOUT TEACHING LITERACY WITH SCIENCE?. Science & Children, 53(8), 47
    • Supplemental Instruction

      Flake, Patricia
      Students often become overwhelmed with the amount of information to be learned in a course, and often feel under-prepared for exams. SI can provide peer-led study sessions that demonstrate effective note-taking, discussion, critical thinking, and a variety of review methods, including continuous review. The scheduled 2-3 sessions throughout the weeks of the semester offer students planned study time and review. All sessions are open to all enrolled in the particular course. Feeling more prepared and confident with the material not only produces higher test scores, but students participate more in class and are less hesitant to ask questions. SI Leaders are students who have already successfully completed the course and have successfully met the required criteria, as well as, the final approval of the course instructor. Leaders have completed, or will be completing, training offered through the College Reading and Learning Association (CRLA) of which the department of Academic Skills is accredited. Defining SI, along with a bit of history, will demonstrate the benefits of the Supplemental Instruction program for both students and professors.
    • Supplemental Instruction - What is SI?

      Flake, Patricia
      Students often become overwhelmed with the amount of information to be learned in a course, and often feel underprepared for exams.  SI can provide peer-led study sessions that demonstrate effective note-taking, discussion, critical thinking, and a variety of review methods, including continuous review. The scheduled 2-3 sessions per week throughout the weeks of the semester offer students planned study time and review.  All sessions are open to all enrolled in the particular course.  Feeling more prepared and confident with the material, not only produces higher test scores, but students participate in class and are less hesitant to ask questions. SI Leaders are students who have already successfully completed the course and have successfully met the required criteria, as well as, final approval of the course professor. Leaders have completed or will be completing training offered through the College Reading and Learning Association (CRLA) of which the department of Academic Skills is accredited. Defining SI, along with a bit of history, will demonstrate the benefits of the Supplemental Instruction program for both students and professors.
    • Testing and Improving the Teaching and Learning Processes Using Large Sample Approximation to the Binomial Distribution

      Wijesuriya, Uditha
      Most of the experiments in different fields such as Natural sciences, Social sciences, Healthcare, and Business, often design problems to have answers of the form either success (yes) or failure (no). In consequence, based on the proportion of successes, the product of the experiment can be explored statistically at a given significance level, if the appropriate requirements are satisfied. This proposed method investigates the ability of designing a simple experiment to determine and to improve the proportion of the students who really perceive the material according to the instructor’s teaching methodology. The large sample approximation to the binomial distribution is used to put forward an approximate confidence interval, and to test the hypotheses over the population proportion of the students who accept the teaching method and hence understand the subject matters in depth. A simulation study is developed to demonstrate how one would employ this method in their field. For any teaching course, this method is applicable and beneficial for both the instructor and the students to improve both teaching and learning processes.
    • Testing to Enhance Learning Even Students May Enjoy!

      Gish, Dennis W.
      "What we resolve to do in school only makes sense when considered in broader context of what the society intends to accomplish through its educational investment in the young." Jerome Bruner, 1996 The tenets of teachers that are generally encoded as held truth is when "teachers teach, students learn". However, there still remains the constant reminder of exposure to students' poor performances on tests. Practice testing is one of the most well-established strategies for improving student learning. Researchers continue to provide a substantial body of evidence that students who "test" themselves repeatedly do have better learning experiences. However, despite the empirical evidence, tests still remain often maligned and underutilized by teachers. A couple of such methods of discovery where practice testing has gained exposure and acceptance in my classrooms are study guide tools referred to as the "WAGR", Written Assignment Guided Review and the "WYSK", What You Should Know. The WAGR allows teachers to rejoice in testing students in an assignment format without having to "re-invent the wheel"! In studying memory, Psychology teaches us there is real evidence that learning persists when students' three measures of retention (recall, recognition, and re-learning) are actively involved in their study habits. The WAGR is a collection of selected topics simply presented to students in a multi-choice, true/false, and fill-in-blank format. The WAGR can be adaptable and flexible according which specific memory retention test the teacher believes desirable for students at designated frequencies. The WAGR can also address another often failed memory test by students that of which is re-learning. In short, the WAGR provides students a study guide in a testing format adaptable to his/her own learning style. As a supplement to the WAGR, the WYSK can be as versatile. The WYSK is a traditional "bullet-type" listing of items students are expected to know as they prepare for the exam. The convention of WYSK requires and guides the student to research the material making notes in a short answer format that helps best to recall, recognize, or re-learn the material. The WYSK provides not only a focused study guide but can also be used as an assignment for teachers who believe in short answer responses as the best source of testing and applying students' understanding of the material.
    • The Effects and Outcomes of Low Fidelity Clinical Simulation for Respiratory Therapy Students

      Phy, Wesley
      Focus: The field of respiratory therapy is a growing and demanding profession that requires a solid educational foundation that includes good critical thinking skills and the ability to quickly make correct decisions that can have a direct effect on patient care. Problem: The task of teaching critical thinking skills to respiratory therapy (RT) students is further challenged by the available pedagogical options for presenting these new ideas and concepts. Students are often challenged by the difficulty of learning complex material associated standard classroom lecture format. This research focused on low fidelity clinical simulation and how it compared to standard classroom instruction as a teaching method. This research focused on two questions that intended to investigate the use of computer based simulation as compared to a standard lecture format and how critical thinking and content retention was impacted. Question one: How does the use of online clinical simulation affect student learning and critical thinking skills? Question two: How does the use of online clinical simulation affect student perceptions and attitudes toward patient care? Context: The setting used for this research included both a standard on-campus classroom and the computer laboratory. The course of study was identified as REST 222, Respiratory Pathophysiology II with the targeted learning outcomes focused on concluding and identifying the differences in the retention of content from a standard classroom lecture to the use of computer based simulation of the same content. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of low fidelity clinical simulation significantly improved critical thinking, clinical judgment, self-confidence, and perceptions in regard to patient care and interaction. Approach: The population for this study included second year respiratory therapy students placed into two groups. Both groups were provided with duplicate information using a standard lecture format for group one and a computer based low fidelity clinical simulation program for group two. This study incorporated a triangulation of three different data sources, which included a post-study quiz, post-study survey, and a group debriefing session to determine student perceptions and attitudes of using low fidelity simulation as a teaching method. It also determined if critical thinking skills improved with the use of low fidelity simulation. Reflection: The results of this study show positive increases in student critical thinking, clinical judgment, perceptions, and self-confidence using low fidelity clinical simulation as compared to using standard lecture as a method of teaching.