• 2017 Celebration of Teaching & Learning Symposium Abstracts

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
    • 2017 Celebration of Teaching Learning Symposium Program

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
    • 2018 Celebration of Teaching & Learning Symposium- Abstracts

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
    • 2018 Celebration of Teaching Learning Symposium Program

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
    • 2019 Celebration of Teaching & Learning Symposium - Abstracts

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
    • 2020 Celebration of Teaching Learning & Symposium- Abstracts

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
    • 2021 Celebration of Teaching & Learning Symposium Abstracts

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
    • 3rd Celebration of Teaching & Learning Symposium Program

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
    • 4th Celebration of Teaching & Learning Symposium Program

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
    • A Case Study in Deploying Experiential Learning in Fast Paced, Large Online Classroom Environment

      Bačić, Dinko
      Online education is rapidly gaining momentum in higher education. Online delivery mode is especially gaining tractions with professionals looking to further their career by obtaining Master of Business Administration degree. This student segment is actively seeking for flexible learning environment to allow them to successfully balance professional career, family commitments and school obligations. Furthermore, they expect immediate benefit and practical application of newly acquired knowledge in their professional life. On the other hand, MBA granting institutions are meeting the growing demand by introducing programs and courses allowing for large enrollments (30 -250) and intensive/shorter duration (7-8 weeks). The faculty is under pressure to deliver intensive, practical, rigorous, and scalable courses. Information Visualization & Dashboarding course was offered as a newly created course in USI's rapidly growing online MBA; data analytics track. This seven-week course could meet its five main objectives by adopting highly structured experiential learning. Experiential learning is the process of learning through reflection on doing (Kolb 1984). While the value and need for experiential learning in business programs is noted in higher education (McCarthy & McCarthy 2006), successful implementation in 100% online and intensive environment that requires acquisition of technology skill to allow for 'doing' is rare. The course was delivered to 44 students of various backgrounds though 7 modules, each consisting of module overview, 6 lessons, lesson quizzes, module exam & experiential hands-on assignment with brief reflection. All instructional materials (videos, readings and assessments) were highly customized, closely coupled and reinforcing each other. The emphasis was placed on practical value of the content and immediate applicability. Students were provided the avenue for continued feedback on course structure and effectiveness. Early feedback suggests this is one of most intensive (15-20+ hours of work per week), practical and effective courses in the MBA curriculum. Early indication is that this course structure can scale to hundreds of students with incremental investment in academic coaches and technology mentoring. Kolb, D (1984). Experiential Learning as the Science of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. McCarthy, P. R., & McCarthy, H. M. (2006). When Case Studies Are Not Enough: Integrating Experiential Learning Into Business Curricula. Journal of Education for Business, 81(4), 201-204.
    • A Graduate Degree Program Remodel for Academic Success, Differentiation and Access

      Valadares, Kevin; Reynolds, Erin; Nimkar, Swateja; Ward, Zach; Diekemper, Karla; Weagley, JD
      Problem/Issue and Context: The Master of Health Administration at USI was initiated in 2001 as a 39 credit-hour hybrid leadership program. The intended student base is adults working in healthcare. All facets of the program, including its curriculum, delivery method, admission standards and goals, remained largely unchanged until 2019. While a steady stream of students graduated, the program lacked innovation and breath. A program remodel was needed. Grounding: Transformation to an accelerated format is a rapidly growing change in graduate education. Literature shows that online accelerated programs are associated with high student satisfaction and retention rates (Gazza & Matthias 2016). Additionally, instructional design and interactive teaching tools play a critical role in the success of accelerated graduate courses (Gardner et al., 2019). Additionally, project-based learning increases student’s interests in a subject by creating connections to authentic, meaningful and real-world learning, and ensures deeper learning outcomes (Lathram, Lenz & Ark, 2016). Project-based learning pedagogical methods are growing in their use throughout education Helle, Tynjala & Oikinuoua (2006). Project-based learning, as defined by Mills & Treagust (2003), involve projects that focus on application and integration of previous knowledge within the learning environment. Additionally, Mills & Treagust state that project-based learning focuses on several key concepts: the application of knowledge [gained in the course], projects that align with professional reality, and are usually “self-directed” (p. 8-9). Approach/Methods: Three overall methods were incorporated to remodel the MHA program: (a) use of Quality Matters (QM) framework to revise all online courses, (b) addition of project-based learning thread to all courses, and (c) creation of a differentiation strategy to allow additional concentrations and certificates. All MHA courses will be revised and restructured into 7-week online courses through the USI Online Course Development Program using the QM framework. This moved the program to an online- accelerated format with multiple entry points. Prior to the remodel, the program required an exiting Capstone project course which has now been replaced with an emphasis on project-based learning as a curricular thread through all courses. This allowed the program to be converted to a 36 credit hour option. A differentiation strategy was initiated allowing a new Post-Acute Care concentration to be developed along with two adjacent post-baccalaureate certificate programs. The latter allows non- degree seeking students exposure to the facets of the MHA program. The methodology for program evaluation is currently evolving. Metrics used in the outcomes analysis of the remodeled program will include enrollment, retention, graduation, salaries, and job placement rates. Discussion/Lessons Learned: The remodeled program was partially launched in August 2020 with full implementation in August 2021. The QM framework allows for an organized structure and consistent expectations in all MHA courses which enhances student success. The project-based learning component of each course allows for real-world analysis related to the content. The differentiation strategy increases access to the program though new channels – a Post-Acute Care concentration and two new certificate learning opportunities. From an outcomes perspective, we immediately experienced an enrollment increase once the redesigned program was launched. Additionally, we will track job placement, alumni and employer satisfaction and salaries of our graduates for a more comprehensive outcomes analysis of the program as it matures. References Gardner, J., Barclay, M., Kong, Y., & LeVally, C. (2019). Designing an accelerated graduate evaluation course using the first principles of instruction and interactive media. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 48(4), 493-517. DOI: 10.1177/0047239519893049 Gazza, E. A., & Matthias, A. (2016). Using student satisfaction data to evaluate a new online accelerated nursing education program. Evaluation and Program Planning, 58, 171-175. DOI: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2016.06.008 Helle, L., Tynjala, Paivi, & Olkinura, E. (2006). Project-Based Learning in Post-Secondary Education – Theory, Practice and Rubber Sling Shots. Higher Education. 51, 287-314. Lathram, B., Lenz, B., & Ark, T.V. (2016) Preparing students for a project-based world. Getting Smart/Buck Institute for Education. Mills, J.E, & Treagust, D.F. (2003). Engineering education—is problem-based or project-based learning the answer? Australasian Journal of Engineering Education, 3(2), 2-16
    • A Process for RN-BSN Program Evaluation

      Connerton, Charlotte; Doerner, Mary
      Topic/Problem Statement Evaluation of a programs outcomes is necessary to support a programs curriculum. Nursing programs are accredited by various bodies, yet each accrediting body expects the nursing program to evaluate itself to ensure the students are meeting the program outcomes. The purpose of this project is to develop the process for Registered Nurses Baccalaureate of Science in Nursing (RN-BSN) program assessment through mapping of key assignments to program outcomes and assessment rubrics development to demonstrate student achievement of program outcomes. Faculty use of assessment rubrics will determine student learning and achievement of program outcomes. Context The University of Southern Indiana on-line RN-BSN program has six program outcomes. While regulatory bodies look at prelicensure programs and NCLEX pass rates, it is also essential to evaluate the effectiveness of RN-BSN programs. There was no clear data to demonstrate achieve of program outcomes. Licensed RNs are required to complete nine nursing courses. Specific courses assignments were identified with key evidence to demonstrate the students achievement of program outcomes. Grounding A search of literature using three online databases revealed limited published research related to nursing program evaluation. Literature reviews reveal much of the published evaluation research focuses on evaluation of individual courses or instructional methods rather than systematic program evaluation (Horne & Sandmann, 2012; Russell, 2015). Research related to use of rubrics in program evaluation focused on interrater reliability for grading individual student written assignments (Kilanowski & Bowers, 2017), mapping competencies to course assignments (Laux & Stoten, 2016). The lack of overall program evaluation research supports the need for study and development of effective processes for documentation of outcomes and program evaluation. Approach The project was submitted for Institutional Review Board for approval. The project was identified as a quality improvement project. Two workshops were conducted in May 2019. Day 1 was to examine the courses for key assignments and identify evidence that would demonstrate achievement of program outcomes. Day 2 was the development of the assessment rubrics with the assistance of an Assessment Consultant. Assessment rubrics were piloted in six classes in Summer 2019. Face validity of assessment rubrics were determined by two faculty not participating in the workshop. Assessment rubrics were revised based on the comments from the faculty reviewers and will be piloted in additional courses. Reflection/Discussion/Lessons Learned The piloting of the rubrics by faculty identified concerns with the provision of evidence needed to demonstrate achievement of program outcomes. The face validity reviewers provided vital feedback and suggestion on how to modify the assessment rubric ensure the measurement of identified outcomes. Assessment rubrics were revised based on feedback from the faculty participating in the pilot and face validity reviewers. Face validity review and discussion provided clarity on how the assessment rubrics needed to be modified to demonstrate the evidence of students achieving program outcomes. This was a collaborative effort between the faculty of the RN-BSN program. The face validity reviewers taught outside of the RN-BSN program. Measurement of student learning and achievement of program outcomes will begin Summer 2020. References Horne, E. M. & Sandmann, L. R. (2012). Current trends in systematic program evaluation of online graduate nursing education: An integrative literature review. Journal of Nursing Education, 51, 570-578. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20120820-06 Kilanowski, J. F. & Abbott, M. B. (2017). Investigating interrater reliability in an online RN-to-BSN program: Disparate conclusions. Journal of Nursing Education, 56, 360-363. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20170518-08 Laux, M. & Stoten, S. (2016). A statewide RN-BSN consortium use of the electronic portfolio to demonstrate student competency. Nurse Educator, 41, 275-277. https://doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000277 Russell, B. H. (2015). The who, what, and how of evaluation within online nursing education: State of the science. Journal of Nursing Education, 54, 13-21+sup. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20141228-02
    • A virtual approach to experiential learning: Using free web-based resources within the classroom to enhance students’ learning

      Wanjugu, Sabinah
      Traditionally, students within my digital marketing class have had an opportunity to work with a real client from the community to develop a digital marketing strategy. An approach that gave the student an avenue to enhance their learning process through a hands-on experience. However, due to challenges caused by COVID-19, I had to adjust this approach to experiential learning by use of free web-based resources that I incorporated within my classroom. These web-based resources ensured enhanced students' learning throughout the semester. Simulations: Previous studies on the use of simulation in business education have shown that simulations enhance students' learning process and boost student’s confidence and employability (Avramenko, 2012). I incorporated Mimic pro, a computer-assisted simulation within my digital marketing class to give students a simulated real-life learning opportunity. In Mimic Pro, the students assumed a digital marketer's role for an online digital camera store. Over the course of 6 rounds, students worked to improve the effectiveness of their online advertising campaigns. The simulation's goal was to provide students with a better understanding of paid marketing platforms, strategic keyword research, targeted ads, landing page management, email marketing, and key performance indicators (metrics). The students mentioned that the simulation helped provide them with an opportunity to promote concept attainment, allow for interaction between teams, and feedback to improve their knowledge and skills. Third-party certifications: I also incorporated third-party certifications within the class to back up the skills learned throughout the semester and within the Mimic Pro simulation. One challenge within the business field is balancing the concepts learned within the classroom with the specific skill needed by students to be successful in their business-related careers. Third-party certifications play a part in integrating the emerging techniques and technologies within the industry into existing business courses as part of the overall course learning outcomes (Kim et al., 2019). The current free online certification programs in marketing include Google Analytics certification, Google Ads certification, Hootsuite Social Marketing certification, and HubSpot’s certifications. In my digital marketing course, students took the Google Analytic Certification and Google Ads Certification, and by the end of the semester, they were able to add the two certifications into their resume, boosting their employability. Participants will be encouraged to reflect on the various free web-based resources available that could be implemented within their business courses to enhance students' learning experience and make them career ready. References Avramenko, A. (2012). Enhancing students' employability through business simulation. Education+ Training. Kim, D. H., Hettche, M., & Spiller, L. (2019). Incorporating third-party online certifications into a marketing course: The effect of learning style on student responses. Marketing Education Review, 29(3), 193-206.
    • An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching Introduction to Proof

      Gentle, Adrian P.
      In recent years I have become increasingly dissatisfied with the depth of engagement and student learning in my classes. As a result, in fall 2016 I implemented an inquiry-based learning (IBL) approach to teaching introduction to proof, a required course for mathematics majors which aims to introduce students to careful mathematical reasoning and transition them away from an algorithmic view of mathematics. IBL engages students in guided discovery, and in this talk I describe my transition to this evidence-based, student-centered approach. Rather than follow a traditional textbook, students work through carefully sequenced notes which contain key definitions and statements of important theorems, and students are required to construct proofs and solve non-trivial problems. Class time is spent with students presenting their work on the board, or working in small groups, with students responsible for building understanding through discussion and questioning. A significant increase in student engagement and community was observed in the first semester of the IBL class. I will discuss what worked and what did not, and argue that a transition to evidence-based teaching not only benefits students, but provides instructors with an opportunity to revitalize their classrooms.
    • Atypical use of audience response system provides students the opportunity to formatively assess faculty teaching and improve learning outcomes

      Hopper, Mari K.; Carroll, Megan; Wright, Serena
      Use of audience response systems (“clickers”) offer faculty the ability to formatively assess student learning. Unfortunately, this technology is very rarely - if ever - used to provide students the opportunity to formatively assess faculty teaching. Over the past two years, Indiana University School of Medicine completely reformed its curriculum. Reform efforts led to a variety of innovative and experimental teaching and learning methods. One new method involved a series of nine classroom sessions that were based on clinical cases and engaged a panel of experts (physiologist, pathologists, pharmacologists, and physicians). Panel presentations were interactive, and delivered course content via livestream to all 360 second year medical students enrolled at nine different campus sites. In order to assess the effectiveness of this entirely new approach, a series of four questions were delivered via an audience response system to all students at the end of each three hour session. Students responded to the following questions:  1) To what degree has this session required you to utilize higher order skills?; 2) on a scale of 1-10 rate your overall level of engagement; 3) estimate the percentage of time you remained focused; and 4) please share what went well and suggestions you have for improvement. Response to questions following the first session indicated that only 10% of students viewed the session as requiring very high levels of engagement, 55% of students reported high to very high levels of engagement, and 55% felt they remained focused for 70% or more of the class period. Students provided many informative responses to open ended questions. Based on student input, faculty made revisions prior to delivery of the next class session (next day) including addition of more challenging and interactive questions, narrative to slides, and summation of cases.  Each day changes were made based on student input. By the ninth (final) session, over 30% of students indicated the session required very high levels of higher order skills, 80% reported high to very high levels of engagement, and 75% felt they were able to remain focused over 70% of the session. At all levels of education, student feedback is essential as faculty seek to design applicable and intellectually challenging learning exercises that students find useful and enjoyable. In this study, innovative use of an audience response system allowed faculty to gather student feedback that resulted in improvement in student engagement, focus, and utilization of higher order skills.
    • Balancing Flexibility and Rigor to Support Student Success

      Cardamone, Carie; Dwyer, Heather
      As the pandemic continues, instructors strive to incorporate flexibility in their courses while preserving academic rigor. In this session, we will explore the concept of rigor and its relationship to inclusive, flexible teaching.  Using Universal Design for Learning as a framework, we will discuss proactive strategies for maintaining high course standards while reaching all students.  Instructors adopting Universal Design models have seen their results increase student retention and engagement.
    • Be Good to You!

      Gruenewald, Steve
      A survey by the American College Health Association indicated that three out of five students experienced overwhelming anxiety, and two out of five students were too depressed to function (Roy, 2018). There has been a significant increase in the number of students being referred to a mental health provider after showing signs of distress in their daily interactions at school, etc. Living Works has gatekeeper training for individuals called the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills (ASIST) program. Living Works estimates that ASIST has prevented over 300,00 suicide attempts (Living Works, 2020). Part of the ASIST program encourages the development of regular self-care activities. The Be Good to You! activity was developed and implemented to provide students a self-care activity. Many students are simply in need of a healthy release for the stressor that is affecting them. The activity has been used for over three years with positive feedback from both undergraduate and graduate students. The activity is presented as a regular course assignment given to all students, regardless of the course delivery platform. The activity is introduced the first day of the semester and the students have until the week before finals week to complete the activity. Be Good to You! has two parts. The first part is to get instructor approval for the activity and then post proof that the activity was completed. This proof is usually a selfie photo of the student engaged in the activity. Students have engaged in getting a massage, mani-pedi, attending sporting events, playing with animals at the local humane society, hiking, surfing, running in a marathon, Christmas caroling, going to the zoo with their nieces and nephews, getting a deluxe facial treatment, clothes shopping, and many other activities. Students have given positive comments on the activity in the course evaluations. One student commented that this assignment should be part of every college course because the assignment required them to focus on themselves and relax doing something that brings them joy. Another student wrote that this assignment has proven that stepping back from the stress of school gave a renewed energy for studying and will be something they do regularly in the future. Several students commented that this one assignment helped them to stay present and better manage the imposed requirements of their classes and life experiences. In-class feedback from students has been positive and several students felt that this activity had a positive impact on their feelings about school. Providing this activity as part of the course sends a message that taking time for yourself and destressing can bring the student's perceptions and life more into balance. References Living Works. (2020, January 13). Living Works. Retrieved from Living Works Corporation Web site: https://www.livingworks.net/history Roy, N. (2018, December 17). Higher Education Today. Retrieved from higheredtoday.org: https://www.higheredtoday.org/2018/12/17/rise-mental-health-college-campuses-protecting-emotional-health-nations-college-students/
    • Broadening career opportunities and breaking down stereotypes: Correctional facility tours and the criminal justice student

      Stacer, Melissa J.
      Students' negative perceptions of inmates are a challenging aspect of teaching criminal justice. It is not uncommon to hear an "us versus them" dichotomy when criminal offenders are discussed. Despite an abundance of television and "infotainment" shows introducing correctional facilities to the public, these facilities and those living and working within remain largely unknown and subject to negative stereotypes. Some scholars suggest exposing students to the criminal justice system may provide a realistic approach to understanding offenders and those who work within the system. Correctional facility tours are one way to create this real-life exposure. In two courses, CRIM 234 Introduction to Corrections and CRIM 370 Prisons, attending a jail or prison tour and writing a 500-word essay reflecting on the tour are course requirements. The original goal was to expose students to the criminal justice system in action and to allow students an opportunity to correct inaccurate perceptions. Beginning in 2014, I began conducting research to assess the effects of the correctional tours on students. This included a pre-test/post-test design wherein students were asked to complete a survey with Likert items and open-ended items before and after attending a prison or jail tour. Students were also asked if I could use their essay for research. This study was approved by the IRB, and data were collected in the Spring 2014, Fall 2014, and Spring 2015 semesters. Correctional tours are quite popular across criminal justice curricula, but competing perspectives exist on the impact of these tours on students. Some scholars illustrated the positive impacts, such as being able to apply concepts (Brown, 2001, Helfgott, 2003), being able to link class material to the real world (Smith et al., 2010), and changing prejudicial attitudes (Boag & Wilson, 2013). Other scholars (Payne, Sumter, & Sun, 2013) argue these tours are often seen by students as entertainment and thus are not educative, and illustrate issues with tours being "staged" and that inmates are objectified (Piche & Walby, 2010). The results of the study were both expected and unexpected. As expected, most students wrote about the influence of the media on their perceptions of corrections and revealed holding stereotypes about those who work and are confined in correctional facilities. Unexpected were results indicating that students reported more positive attitudes towards correctional staff after attending the correctional tour, and in their essays many students discussed how correctional careers were something they would now would consider.
    • Building Faculty Confidence in Teaching Writing in the Disciplines: Long-Term Strategic Planning and Short-Term Tactics to Promote Student Success

      Santee, Joy
      Topic/Problem Statement and Context: If you have ever looked at a pile of papers with dread for what you’ll find when you start reading them, felt unsure about providing writing-related feedback to students or avoided assigning much writing altogether, you’re definitely not alone. While effective written communication is a foundational skill for students’ academic and professional success in most disciplines, faculty sometimes have difficulty finding time to incorporate writing instruction into content-heavy courses or lack the knowledge or confidence to teach or assess writing effectively, leading to product-focused approaches to writing instruction and less-than-stellar writing from students. However, scaffolding smaller components of writing instruction throughout the curriculum of any given discipline and adding more frequent low-stakes writing assignments can improve students’ performance in discipline-specific writing contexts. Approach: This presentation introduces two approaches to help faculty teach writing better within their disciplines: one long-term strategic planning approach and one set of short-term tactics. First, it draws on disciplinarily-diverse examples from the University of Minnesota’s Writing Enriched Curriculum program to introduce a long-term planning process for strategically incorporating effective writing instruction in any given academic program through articulation of discipline-specific writing characteristics (both academic and professional), definition of desired student writing outcomes, and curriculum mapping that distributes writing instruction throughout a student’s program in ways appropriate to the specific discipline (University of Minnesota). Second, it provides a brief introduction to ways that that low-stakes, unassessed or minimally assessed writing instruction can be incorporated into classes with minimal impact on instructional time or faculty workload (Elbow 1997), to promote enhanced critical thinking (Çavdar and Doe 2012) and confidence (Brownell, Price, and Steinman 2013), two key elements in student writing success. Reflection/Discussion: What emerges from these two approaches is a set of practices that can be incorporated in any discipline to improve student writing and decrease faculty frustration with teaching and grading writing in their fields. Students’ writing improves when they more clearly understand discipline-specific expectations of writing, and faculty can use their articulations of effective writing in their disciplines to improve instruction, feedback to students, and program assessment. Topic/Problem Statement: As educators, we want our students to learn complex formulas, read challenging pieces of literature, and perhaps perform some academic research (Rousseau, 2006). Yet, can students who are quite addicted to smartphones perform deep work or are they stuck in a life of shallowness (Newport, 2016)? Evidence suggests that prolonged smartphone use robs students of the willpower necessary to perform the cognitively demanding tasks we ask of them (Baumeister and Tierney, 2012). Hence, in this session I aim (1) to present data on internet addiction, (2) to have the audience share their feelings on whether smartphones have changed students, and (3) stimulate interest in a work group dedicated to researching internet addiction and disseminating strategies for combating it. Context: I assume that there is a chance that while you are reviewing this submission, you have looked at your phone at least once and have multiple browser windows open. That is also how our students operate in class – and we cannot solve it by just telling students to put their phones away. Such short-term solutions do not produce long-term results. Students need to become aware of how their attention is diverted and their willpower is depleted. Approach: Given only 20 minutes, I aim to build an awareness of this issue through presenting some selected research on what smartphone use is doing to students. I also aim to report results of an internet fast assignment that my students performed. Ideally, I would also like to recruit a group of colleagues interested in working on this issue with me. Discussion: I use 2012 as a proxy for “when things changed in the classroom.†The iPhone was released in 2007, but around 2012, every student came to class with a device more powerful than the spaceship that went to the moon. Before 2012, when I entered the classroom, students were talking to each other. After 2012, most of them were face down in a screen until class started. Before 2012, I could engage a classroom in a period-long discussion. After 2012, they stopped responding and I had to alter my pedagogy to get them to respond (I posed a question, had them write “minute papers,†then asked what they wrote). I assume that I am not the only person seeing this phenomenon. Thanks for your time. References: Baumeister, R. F., & Tierney, J. (2012). Willpower: Rediscovering the greatest human strength. Penguin. Newport, C. (2016). Deep Work: Rules for Focus Success in a Distracted World. Grand Central Publishing. Rousseau, D. M. (2006). Is there such a thing as “evidence-based management†?. Academy of management review, 31(2), 256-269. Brownell, S. E., Price, J. V., & Steinman, L. (2013). A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science. Advances in Physiology Education, 37 (1), 70-79. Çavdar, G., & Doe, S. (2012). Learning through writing: Teaching critical thinking skills in writing assignments. PS: Political Science & Politics, 45 (2), 298-306. Elbow, P. (1997). High stakes and low stakes in assigning and responding to writing. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, (69), 5-13. Nicol, D. (2010). From monologue to dialogue: improving written feedback processes in mass higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35 (5), 501-517. University of Minnesota (2018). Writing Enriched Curriculum (WEC) Model. Retrieved from https://wec.umn.edu/wec-model