• Structuring Course Delivery Upon Student Evaluation Criteria

      Holt, Emily; Holt, Emily
      Topic: Student perceptions of teaching and evaluation may differ from those of the faculty member teaching the course.  Without dialogue between the students and faculty members, perceptions of effective and ineffective teaching may be unaddressed. This may impair successful outcomes in the course. Context: Dental hygiene students enter the program as a cohort and take the same courses together for 4 semesters.  Since the cohort remains the same for the 23 courses taken while in the Dental Hygiene Program, faculty members can implement similar approaches to teaching and evaluation throughout the 2 years to address student perceptions of effective teaching and evaluation methods. Approach: Before the class session, a framework is created in Microsoft Word which the faculty member uses during the class session to type student feedback while the document is pulled up on the projector.  Fifty minutes is dedicated to open conversation with students to understand what they consider effective and ineffective methods to address five of the ten statements found on the University sponsored course evaluation.  The statements include: The course materials used, such as visuals, texts, handouts, and online items, helped me to learn. The assignments helped me increase my understanding of the course content. The instructor clearly communicated the subject matter. The instructor's teaching style was effective for me. The instructor evaluated me fairly. Following the class session, the faculty member reviews the feedback to determine if she already implements the suggestion, already prevents the problem described, will sometimes implement the suggestion, will work on implementing the suggestion more often, or is unable to implement the suggestion.  A symbol key representing each of the five actions is placed next to each item on the framework sheet.  The document is emailed to students so they know how the faculty member will incorporate their suggestions.  Ten to 15 minutes is spent at the beginning of the next class session to answer questions students have about the results. Reflection: Students tell me they feel like I listen to them and meet their needs.  I better understand what it means to a student to teach and evaluate effectively.  Ultimately, student evaluations of teaching have improved as a result of addressing their preferences in teaching and evaluation.  
    • Civility Begins With Clear Expectations

      Bonham, Elizabeth; Bonham, Elizabeth
      Topic/Problem statement: Incivility is a phenomenon found in many contexts (Phillips, 2016), including the classroom. Incivility is a disregard and insolence for others, causing an atmosphere of disrespect, conflict, and stress whereas civility is an authentic respect for others requiring time, presence, engagement, and intention to seek common ground (Clark, 2018). Online learning can breed an anonymous platform for rude behavior. Setting expectations of appropriate behavior and communication sets the stage for a safe classroom. Context: NURS 602, Evidence Based Practice for Advanced Nursing, is one of the first courses of the core curriculum in the Masters of Science in Nursing Program and delivered online. Two course objectives relate to engaging in civil, professional, and collaborative teams…. that improve patient care outcomes and to demonstrate effective leadership and interpersonal collaboration. Module learning objectives include demonstrating effective teamwork to manage conflict and problematic behavior and apply collaborative principles in small group work. Approach: As an initial assignment, students read an article by Dr Molly Worthen (2017) professor at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. Her article informs students what is appropriate classroom communication behavior. Using discussion board in Blackboard, students write a 150-200 word response to the article citing one other scholarly reference and then read and respond to at least one other students posting. All aspects of these points are included in a posting that gets full credit: Provides professional, insightful response that relates directly to the topic of the article; provides one scholarly reference which supports response; responds to at least one other student’s posting; and uses correct language conventions (i.e. spelling, APA formatting). Reflection/Discussion: Students appreciated reading the article but were surprised they were asked to do so. Their reason was that incivility was not an issue in their view but with further reflection realized the helpfulness of the assignment for setting the tone of the class. Students discussed the deconstruction of civil communication beginning in elementary school and actually lamented the demise of polite conversation. Students do a large amount of course assignments in NURS602 via small groups and find that this early assignment facilitates civil communication. This assignment is easily replicable for faculty in other disciplines and courses to raise student sensitivity of civility using discussion board technology. References: Clark, C. (2017). Sustaining civility in nursing education, 2nd ed. Indianapolis, IN: STTI Honor Society of Nursing. Phillips, J. (2016). Workplace violence against health care workers in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine, 374(17), 1661-69. Worthen, M. (2017). U Can't Talk to Ur Professor Like This. New York Times, May 13, 2017.
    • Opening the Academic Gates: Using Threshold Concepts of Writing Studies as a Framework for Entering a Discipline

      Hanson, Morgan; Hanson, Morgan
      Topic/Problem Statement: Current theories on student learning express the inherent struggle with learning that students encounter when engaging with a new discipline in the university. One way to help students work through the troublesomeness that comes with learning about a new discipline is via threshold concepts, a framework first introduced by Jan H. F. Meyer and Ray Land (2003). In this poster presentation, I provide strategies for integrating threshold concepts of writing studies into course writing assignments (informal and formal) to increase participation in academic discourse and academic literacy and to minimize disciplinary gatekeeping. Context: I focus this presentation on a first-year composition (FYC) course (in this case, ENG 201), a Core 39 writing course at USI. I also study the English department’s program objectives for ENG 201 and Core 39 assessment rubric(s) to demonstrate how threshold concepts can further articulate the goals of the department and the university, thus enabling students to more effectively engage within USI’s academic community. Approach: In 2015, Linda Adler-Kassner and Elizabeth Wardle, along with other writing studies scholars, established threshold concepts for writing in Naming What We Know: Threshold Concepts of Writing Studies (NWWK). Building on the work of Jan H. F. Meyer and Ray Land (2003), Adler-Kassner and Wardle define threshold concepts as “concepts critical for continued learning and participation in an area or within a community of practice” (2). In this project, I take threshold concepts from NWWK, and I integrate them into formal and informal writing assignments to provide students with a more accessible way to work with key ideas in the field and departmental and university objectives. I provide strategies for creating reading responses that emphasize reflection on course content via a threshold concepts lens. I also demonstrate ways to include threshold concepts into major writing assignments to meet departmental and university goals for the course. Reflection/Discussion: Threshold concepts, with their accessible interpretations of major disciplinary knowledge, create a bridge for students to cross over the murky waters of entering into a new discipline.Through this approach, students gain confidence in writing and academic discourse and literacy, which allows them to ease into the work of the university. Moreover, students gain a new way to talk about writing, which can be used in other courses. To that end, then, instructors can take threshold concepts of writing studies and incorporate them into their own courses. Works Cited: Adler-Kassner, Linda, and Elizabeth Wardle, editors. Naming What We Know: Threshold Concepts of Writing Studies. Utah State UP, 2015. Meyer, Jan H. F., and Ray Land. Threshold Concepts and Troublesome Knowledge: Linkages to Ways of Thinking and Practising within the Disciplines. Occasional Report 4. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, 2003. ETL Project, www.etl.tla.ed.ac.uk/docs/ETLreport4.pdf.  Accessed 25 July 2017.
    • Student Perceptions of a Low-Tech Option for Engagement and Assessment

      Schmuck, Heather; Cook, Joy; Schmuck, Heather; Cook, Joy
      The focus for the IRB approved study was to explore whether utilizing a simple ‘low-tech’, inexpensive option in the classroom provided higher perception levels of engagement and assessment (average rating of agree or strongly agree) from both the student and faculty perspective. The research question for this study was ‘What are students’ perceptions regarding the use of dry erase whiteboards in the classroom as it relates to engagement, formative assessment and learning?’. There is ample literature supporting the use of high-tech ‘clickers’ or student owned technology to increase student engagement. Oftentimes, these high-tech options require increased cost burden on the student. Low-tech options can be relatively inexpensive and potentially create a similar engaged environment demonstrated in literature without additional financial burden. Small dry erase whiteboards were used by students in multiple imaging science classrooms to answer course review material during lecture delivery. Two cohorts of students utilizing this method were surveyed over assessment, engagement, and learning with Likert scaled items and open-ended questions. The researchers learned that this low-cost, low-tech method of student assessment was well received by students who were in overall agreement with every surveyed item. Faculty perceptions for the study included positive results including active engagement from all rather than a few students. Statistical analysis demonstrated a strong correlation between two survey items related to student assessment indicating that students perceived a positive benefit from the use of this teaching pedagogy related to self-reflection. A suggestion for future research would include measurement of actual student learning outcomes when employing this pedagogical practice rather than just perceived learning and a comparative analysis between this option and other ‘high-tech’, more expensive options.
    • More than a Conference: Building Online and In-Class Student Engagement by Attending USIs Health Informatics Tri-State Summit

      Wilson, Gabriela; Wilson, Gabriela
      Problem Statement: Students today can no longer rely only on the ability to accumulate discipline-based information for career success. They need to be able to analyze and evaluate information, solve problems, work interprofessionally and communicate effectively. As educators, our role is to provide our students with the opportunities to participate in meaningful projects in which they play an active role in shaping and enhancing their learning experiences (Delialioglu, 2012). Context: This presentation will highlight assignments built in four different Health Informatics classes offered both online and in face-to-face settings through participation in a conference provided on campus (i.e., Health Informatics Tri-State Summit). This event was used as a vehicle to actively engage students in the material, as well as provide networking and participation in online communities that might not exist in real life. The presentation will emphasize the bridge that was built between online and face-to-face students by creating assignments that involved both groups of students. It will also address the value of engaging students as partners in learning and teaching as the faculty member transitioned from an instructor to facilitator because of this approach. Approach: Transformative learning occurs when students are challenged to think not only critically but also creatively, as well as communicate and collaborate with one another (Freudenberg, Brimble, Vyvyan, & Corby, 2008). This can be accomplished by using information and technology, which need to align with the knowledge of learning (Keane, Keane, & Blicblau, 2016).  As a result, students enrolled in three courses (i.e., Health Informatics (HI301.001); Electronic Health Records and Enterprise Systems (HI302.N01); Social Media Monitoring in Healthcare (HI304.001 and HI304.N01)) were required to attend the 2018 Health Informatics Tri-State Summit organized by the College of Nursing and Health Professions at the University of Southern Indiana. Instead of taking attendance, students received participation points based on social media activity during the conference. The students enrolled in HI301.001 were graded based on the meaningful tweets posted during the event. The students enrolled in HI304.001 and HI304.N01 were assigned to groups and became part of a fictitious consulting team charged with examining the Twitter activity. Their task was to identify an analytic tool that could track the social media activity of all participants during the event and write a report to be presented to the Conference Planning Committee. Students enrolled in HI302.N01 worked in teams and developed a presentation that was relevant to the topics presented during the conference. The group presentations were exhibited using robots that were controlled by students via an app on their mobile devices. Reflection/Discussion: Attending the 1-day long conference presented students with an opportunity to learn how technology and social media can be used to increase the timely dissemination of health information, facilitate interactive communication, and most importantly, network and engage via social communities outside the classroom.  Furthermore, students had the opportunity to listen to reputable speakers on current topics and research in health informatics and healthcare in general. Through the class activities that were designed in each course, students improved not only their discipline-related knowledge, but also teamwork and communication skills. Reflection submitted by students in the form of a blog indicated that they perceived greater confidence in their abilities. From an educator’s perspective, actively engaging students via participation in a conference proved to be an effective tool that can improve teaching and learning by placing concepts in the context, keeping course content up-to-date, and fostering a sense of community. Bibliography Delialioglu, O. (2012). Student Engagement in Blended Learning Environments with Lecture-Based and Problem-Based Instructional Approaches. Educational Technology & Society, 15(3), 310-322. Retrieved 12 18, 2018, from http://ifets.info/journals/15_3/24.pdf Freudenberg, B. D., Brimble, M. A., Vyvyan, V., & Corby, D. E. (2008). A Penny for Your Thoughts: Can Participation in a Student-Industry Conference Improve Students’ Presentation Self-Efficacy and More? The International Journal of Learning: Annual Review, 15(5), 187-200. Retrieved 12 18, 2018, from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/delivery.cfm/ssrn_id1683150_code498263.pdf?abstractid=1493416&mirid=1 Keane, T., Keane, W. F., & Blicblau, A. S. (2016). Beyond traditional literacy: Learning and transformative practices using ICT. Education and Information Technologies, 21(4), 769-781. Retrieved 12 18, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10639-014-9353-5.pdf  
    • Good Teachers, Scholarly Teachers, and Scholars of Teaching and Learning

      Friberg, Jennifer; Friberg, Jennifer
      Keynote Description: University instructors approach course design in unique and personal ways, often reflective of their own experiences, preferences, and perspectives. Despite the array of approaches instructors might use during a semester to teach, explore, or assess content, what IS uniform across course design efforts is the desire to advance students thinking and learning. While some course instructors look to design meaningful learning experiences through instinct and past training, others turn towards evidence to inform their pedagogical choices. Others engage as scholars to study learning in their classroom settings. This keynote will explore good teaching, scholarly teaching, and the scholarship of teaching and learning to explain a continuum of teaching and learning in university classrooms. Resources will be provided to support evidence-based approaches to teaching and the systematic study/reflection of teaching and learning.
    • Students Enhancing Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) Through Service Learning

      Ramos, Elizabeth; Connerton, Charlotte
      Topic/Problem Statement: Service learning is meaningful community service with instruction and structured reflection to enrich the learning experience and teach civic responsibility. Through service learning, the NUTR 383 students enhanced the HEAL curriculum and met course learning outcomes by applying and sharing food and nutrition principles that promote and encourage simple food and nutrient choices among the HEAL participants. The students reflected on their learning to connect theory to practice while the HEAL participants expressed reciprocal benefits to help enhance their healthy food choices.  Context: Nutrition 383 Practical Applications and Evaluation of Food Preparation and Nutrition is a required spring practical food science offering for Nutrition and Wellness and Foodservice Management majors. The HEAL (Healthy Eating and Active Living) program is a grant funded endeavor that promotes healthy lifestyle changes in a church group, specifically All Saints Catholic Parish in Evansville. Students in NUTR 383 and participants in the HEAL program connected in this innovative learning process by constructing, discussing, sharing, and using these materials to make simple healthy food choices. Approach: Students worked individually on each assigned application after laboratory instruction. Through the applications, students creatively developed printed materials in four application / assignment sets. These sets included weekly dinner and snack menus, Dietary Guidelines and recommendations, suggestions for low cost foods, Nutrition Facts panel interpretation with focus on health claims, and nutrient connections to color choices of fruits and vegetables. The students also submitted recipes, which were assembled into a cookbook for individuals / families and quantity food service management. Each student created two recipes: One with enhanced vegetables (hiding a vegetable within another vegetable) and another with replacement of salt with flavor, herbs, and spices for a bean (legume) soup.  This recipe allowed students to show how to promote health and reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, cancer, and dental caries. Reflection/Discussion: Both the nutrition students and the HEAL participants benefited from the service learning application and the project cookbook. Students were able to plan menus, create recipes, and provide nutritional values for educational materials for the HEAL participants. Through reflection the students stated, “I enjoy and value the engaging hands on experience application that broaden my learning capabilities; and "I feel like it was a review of previous things that have been taught in other classes which is nice." The HEAL participants were very appreciative to receive the supplemental information. References: Brinkman, P. & Syracuse, C. (n.d.). Modifying a recipe to be healthier. The Ohio State Extension Family and Consumer Science Bulletin HYG-5543-06. Evers, W., & Mason, A. (2001). Altering recipes for better health. Purdue Extension Consumer and Family Sciences Bulletin CFS-157-W. McGee, H. (2004). On food and cooking. New York, NY: Scribner. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2018). 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (8th ed.). Retrieved from https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf 
    • The impact of class delivery mode on student-faculty interaction and mastery goal orientation

      Celuch, Kevin; Milewicz, Chad; Saxby, Carl
      Topic/Problem statement:  A host of literature points to the significance of active/collaborative learning as a means of enhancing student engagement and subsequent learning.  Recently, questions have been raised as to the efficacy of the approach for different learning contexts (face-to-face versus online).  The present research explores the following question: how does class delivery mode influence the efficacy of active/collaborative learning?  Specifically, we examine perceived differences across delivery modes as well as if the effect of class delivery mode works through (is mediated by) perceived student-faculty interaction to influence student mastery goal orientation. Context:  Students completed a questionnaire related to their perceptions of the classes and their learning at the end of four classes: two sections of a marketing principles introductory class (one face-to-face and one online) taught by the same instructor using the same class assignments; and two sections of a marketing management capstone class (one face-to-face and one online) taught by the same instructor using the same class assignments. Approach:  Note that we controlled for instructor, assignments, and level of classes.  The literature often critiques comparisons of face-to-face versus online class formats for a failure to control such factors.   This research also measures important student process perceptions identified in the teaching and learning literature which have been tied to the effectiveness of active/collaborative approaches.  These included: perceived student-faculty interaction which assesses instructor provision of feedback and facilitation of discussion (adopted from Carini, Kuh, and Klein 2006); mastery goal orientation which assesses the extent of emphasis on understanding rather than memorizing content, enjoyment of learning, and performance improvement (adapted from Anderman and Midgley 2002; Church, Elliot, and Gable 2001); and perceived student engagement which assesses student perceptions of the class learning environment (adopted from Church, Elliot, and Gable 2001).  Reflection/Discussion:  Significant differences between the face-to-face and online delivery mode were observed with face-to-face classes having stronger perceived student-faculty interaction and mastery goal orientation than online formats.  Interestingly, both delivery modes were equally engaging.  Further, class delivery mode (face-to-face versus online) was a significant predictor of perceived student-faculty interaction.  Lastly, delivery mode was found to work through student-faculty interaction to influence student mastery goal orientation.  These findings hold implications for adapting and strengthening active/collaborative learning to online delivery.  Specifically, there is a need to explore at a more nuanced level how the perception of student-faculty interaction can be enhanced for online delivery to positively influence student mastery goal orientation which has been tied to deeper, longer lasting learning.  References Anderman, E.M. and Midgley, C. (2002), “Methods for studing goals, goal structures, and patterns of adaptive learning”, in Goals, Goal Structures, and Patterns of Adaptive Learning, ed. C. Midgley, pp. 1-53.Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ. Carini, R.M., Kuh, G.D. and Klein, S.P. (2006), “Student engagement and student learning: Testing the linkages”, Research in Higher Education, Vol. 47 No. 1, 1-32. Church, M.A., Elliot, A.J. and Gable, S.L. (2001), “Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes”, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.93 No. 1, 43-54.
    • Using a Mix of Strategies to Prepare Nursing Students for Disaster Response

      Connerton, Charlotte; St. Clair, Julie
      Undergraduate nursing faculty are expected to prepare students to participate as members and leaders of interprofessional teams that provide emergency services in their communities.  The BSN Essentials indicate that the baccalaureate nursing program must prepare graduates to “use clinical judgment and decision-making skills in appropriate, timely nursing care during disaster, mass casualty, and other emergency situations” (The American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2008, p. 25).  Context: Nursing 455:  Population-Focused Nursing Practice is taken Fall semester of the senior year. The course promotes development of disaster preparedness competencies through seminar, online clinical modules and simulation. Students are expected to apply principles of SALT triage, plan and set up a shelter, conduct a shelter guest intake and health needs assessment, and use the medical evacuation sled in a seminar setting on campus. Approach: The disaster preparedness clinical education includes seminar, independent online learning and simulation.  The clinical activities include the following: Completion of the SALT Triage and the FEMA IS-100 course independently online prior to the seminar day. Completion of “Stop the Bleed” which includes skills demonstration of wound packing and tourniquet application. Demonstration of evacuation of a victim down a staircase using a Med Sled. Tour of the Physical Activities Center (a Red Cross designated shelter) and development of a shelter set up plans. Use of case studies with Red Cross shelter forms. Demonstration of triage competency using patient triage training cards. Reflection/Discussion: A mix of educational strategies was used to prepare senior level nursing students for response during a disaster.  Students demonstrated the ability to apply the principles of SALT triage, plan and set up a shelter, conduct a shelter guest intake and health needs assessments, and use the medical evacuation sled. Students were actively engaged, and learning occurred through the simulation. References: American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2008). The essentials of baccalaureate education for professional nursing practice. Retrieved from http://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/Publications/BaccEssentials08.pdf American College of Surgeons (2015-2016). Stop the bleed. Retrieved from http://www.bleedingcontrol.org/ Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2018). IS-100.C: Introduction to the incident command system, ICS 100. Retrieved from https://training.fema.gov/is/courseoverview.aspx?code=IS-100.c MESH Coalition (n.d.). Adult patient triage cards. Retrieved from http://www.meshcoalition.org/products/patient-triagecards National Disaster Life Support Foundation (2015). SALT mass casualty triage on-line training. Retrieved from http://register2.ndlsf.org/mod/page/view.php?id=2056
    • USI OT/OTA Toy Accessibility Project

      Mason, Jessica; Dishman, Karen; Arvin, Mary Kay
      Topic/Problem Statement: The role of an occupational therapy professional is to ensure that individuals can participate in daily life activities. Play is the work of children. All children grow and develop from play experiences. For some children with disabilities, participation in play can be limited due to physical and/or cognitive deficits. Children with disabilities can utilize switch-operated toys to more easily engage in play. The occupational therapy (OT) and occupational therapy assistant (OTA) programs decided to work together to modify toys for children with disabilities in our community as a service learning activity. Context: Occupational therapy students and occupational therapy assistant students make up the USI Student Occupational Therapy Association (SOTA). The SOTA program applied and received the USI Endeavor Grant in the fall of 2018. The grant was written by two OT students, one OTA student, and two OT faculty members. The funds from the grant will allow students to learn how to adapt battery operated items using switches. Students will be able to use this skill in future professional occupational therapy practice. Approach: According to Hamm (2005), play experiences provide children with practice for skills that they require in adult life. Children learn from interactions with peers through play. The OT and OTA students received education and training on modifying a battery-operated plush toy into a switch operated toy. The process for adapting the toys was provided by the robotics program at Ivy Tech. This process included learning how a simple electrical circuit works, evaluating the toy, splicing together wires, and connecting the switch to the toy.  Toys were presented to the Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation and Easter Seals Rehabilitation Center during December and January. A total of 50 toys were switch adapted by the OT and OTA students. Reflection/Discussion: After the toy adaptation sessions were completed, OT and OTA students were asked to participate in an IRB approved research study regarding the service learning experience.  Results indicated most students believed this activity helped them make a difference and become more aware of the needs in the community. A majority of the OT and OTA students also reported this activity reinforced problem-solving skills and critical thinking.  The OT and OTA students will present the outcomes of the project at the USI Endeavor Symposium in April 2019. References: Hamm, E. M., Mistrett, S. G., & Ruffino, A.G. (2005). Play outcomes and satisfaction with toys and technology of young children with special needs. Journal of Special Education Technology, 21(1), 29-35. Doi:10.1177/016264340602100103 
    • Survey of Dental Hygiene and Occupational Therapy Students' Perceptions of Team Behaviors and Client Satisfaction during an Interprofessional Education Event

      Coan, Lorinda; Arvin, Mary Kay; Reynolds, Erin
      Oral hygiene is an aspect of daily self-care that has a significant connection to overall health. There is a direct connection between the condition of the mouth, the condition of other systems in the body, and the transmission of infection throughout the body (Azarpazhooh & Leake, 2006; Li, Kolltveit, Tronstad, & Olsen, 2000; Sloane et al., 2013; Stein & Henry, 2009). Daily oral hygiene to maintain oral health has direct benefits for older adults (Bissett & Preshaw, 2011; U.S. Department of Health, 2011). In contrast, a poor oral hygiene regimen is associated with serious risks to overall health, especially in older adults who have been already diagnosed with certain medical conditions and are at risk for health complications (Azarpazhooh & Leake 2006; Li et al., 2000; Salamone, 2013; Stein & Henry, 2009). As patients age and experience a declining health status that leads them into long term care (LTC), oral hygiene tends to receive less attention than other activities of daily living (ADL) (McNally et al., 2012). Occupational therapy (OT) practitioners and dental hygienists (DH) share similar goals in the effort to improve oral healthcare in all populations. Shared assessments include both cognitive and physiological performance skills. Through a collaborative service learning activity, OT and DH students demonstrated interprofessional skills while performing oral and upper body screening of adult clients from the. Survey results indicate positive student perceptions of team planning, as well as high patient (adult volunteer) satisfaction in the care provided.
    • Training improves student performance and perceptions in small group learning

      Hopper, Mari K.; Gidley, Patrick; Mann, Daniel; Weinzapfel, Jacob
      Fifty percent of course contact time in the “renewed” curriculum at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) was dedicated to non-didactic, small-group learning. End of course evaluations indicated that students did not understand or value the approach, perhaps due to lack of training in this methodology. Our aim was to determine if engaging students in training designed to enhance small group dynamics and explain outcomes of this approach would result in improved small group performance and enhanced perceptions. Following IRB approval, small-group case-based sessions were audiotaped on two occasions prior to training (Pre), and two additional sessions following training (Post). Recordings were evaluated and scored by trained evaluators using a rubric including the following categories: Participation, Shared Roles, Focus on Learning Objectives, Approach, Independent Thinking and Interpersonal Interaction. Scores for each category were averaged across the three evaluators both Pre and Post. Additionally, to assess student perceptions, a 15-question survey was administered at three time periods: 1) before any small group sessions or training; 2) after recording two small group sessions and directly prior to training; and 3) following training and after recording two additional sessions. Survey questions included topics such as personal preparation, interpersonal interactions, prior undergraduate experience, and perceptions of small group as an effective learning strategy. Question responses were based on a Likert scale of one through seven. Although work is ongoing, preliminary data analysis using paired T-tests indicate that participation scores increased following training, with members participating more equally and encouraging input from each other more frequently. There was little change in rubric scores for other criteria including ability to share roles and addressing learning objectives. Survey responses reveal that students enjoy small group sessions more, contribute more equally, and have fewer tangential discussions in comparison to the pre-training survey responses. These data suggest that students participating in small group learning sessions benefit from training in this approach, and such training will enhance student perceptions regarding effectiveness of this learning strategy.
    • Using World Literature to Build Cultural Awareness and Increase Cognitive Flexibility

      Gupta, Sukanya; Popescu-Sandu, Oana
      Abstract is not included by request of the authors. Please contact the authors for additional information.
    • COPUS: A non-evaluative classroom observation instrument for assessment of instructional practices

      Deligkaris, Christos; Chan Hilton, Amy B.
      Research in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) education has gathered a significant amount of evidence that active learning pedagogical methods are much more effective in helping students learn than traditional, passive, approaches. [1] Higher education institutions interested in transforming their instructional practices saw the need for information gathering on their current extent of active learning. The Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS) was created as a response to that need. [2,3] COPUS allows a reliable characterization of how faculty and students spend time in the classroom, with a focus on measuring how student-centered the class is. The University of Southern Indiana’s Center for Teaching and Learning adopted the COPUS instrument in Spring 2017 as one tool to support reflective teaching and inform improvements in teaching. An non-evaluative class observation using the COPUS instrument is available for any USI class in any discipline and level. Instructors who are interested in incorporating active learning in their classes would find the information gathered from the COPUS useful. After a request is submitted by the interested instructor, a trained COPUS observer attends an instructor-selected class session and notes what students and the instructor are doing based on predetermined codes during two-minute intervals.  The observer focuses on identifying how students are engaged in their learning (such as working with class members to solve problems or listening to the instructor) and what instructional practices the instructor is using (such as interacting with students or lecturing), rather providing feedback on the instruction or course. From the observation data, two pie charts are generated, one for students and one for the instructor, that indicate the proportion of the time each spent on different behaviors (e.g. listening, writing on blackboard, asking questions etc). Instructors can use the COPUS results for improving their classes and increasing student learning, as documentation in peer-reviewed educational publications and professional portfolios, as well as funding proposals. Implementing the COPUS instrument at USI has been a particularly rewarding experience as it allowed a group of faculty with active learning pedagogical methods common interest to work closely together. As a COPUS observer, we found that attending other faculty member’s classes not only provides a service to enhance teaching but it also exposes us to different teaching approaches and active learning ideas. References Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics, Scott Freeman, Sarah L. Eddy, Miles McDonough, Michelle K. Smith, Nnadozie Okoroafor, Hannah Jordt, and Mary Pat Wenderoth, PNAS June 10, 2014 111 (23) 8410-8415 The Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS): A New Instrument to Characterize University STEM Classroom Practices, Michelle K. Smith, Francis H. M. Jones, Sarah L. Gilbert, Carl E. Wieman, and Erin L. Dolan, CBE—Life Sciences Education 2013 12:4, 618-627 Anatomy of STEM teaching in North American universities, M. Stains, J. Harshman, M. K. Barker, S. V. Chasteen, R. Cole, S. E. Dechenne-Peters, M. K. Eagan Jr., J. M. Esson, J. K. Knight, F. A. Laski, M. Levis-Fitzgerald, C. J. Lee, S. M. Lo, L. M. McDonnell, T. A. McKay, N. Michelotti, A. Musgrove, M. S. Palmer, K. M. Plank, T. M. Rodela, E. R. Sanders, N. G. SCHIMPF, P. M. Schulte, M. K. Smith, M. Stetzer, B. Van Valkenburgh, E. Vinson, L. K. Weir, P. J. Wendel, L. B. Wheeler, A. M. Young, Science 30 Mar 2018 : 1468-1470.
    • Competing for Students' Attention in the Age of Distraction: A Discussion

      Fertig, Jason
      Topic/Problem Statement: As educators, we want our students to learn complex formulas, read challenging pieces of literature, and perhaps perform some academic research (Rousseau, 2006). Yet, can students who are quite addicted to smartphones perform deep work or are they stuck in a life of shallowness (Newport, 2016)? Evidence suggests that prolonged smartphone use robs students of the willpower necessary to perform the cognitively demanding tasks we ask of them (Baumeister and Tierney, 2012). Hence, in this session I aim (1) to present data on internet addiction, (2) to have the audience share their feelings on whether smartphones have changed students, and (3) stimulate interest in a work group dedicated to researching internet addiction and disseminating strategies for combating it. Context: I assume that there is a chance that while you are reviewing this submission, you have looked at your phone at least once and have multiple browser windows open. That is also how our students operate in class – and we cannot solve it by just telling students to put their phones away. Such short-term solutions do not produce long-term results. Students need to become aware of how their attention is diverted and their willpower is depleted. Approach: Given only 20 minutes, I aim to build an awareness of this issue through presenting some selected research on what smartphone use is doing to students. I also aim to report results of an internet fast assignment that my students performed. Ideally, I would also like to recruit a group of colleagues interested in working on this issue with me. Discussion: I use 2012 as a proxy for “when things changed in the classroom.†The iPhone was released in 2007, but around 2012, every student came to class with a device more powerful than the spaceship that went to the moon. Before 2012, when I entered the classroom, students were talking to each other. After 2012, most of them were face down in a screen until class started. Before 2012, I could engage a classroom in a period-long discussion. After 2012, they stopped responding and I had to alter my pedagogy to get them to respond (I posed a question, had them write “minute papers,†then asked what they wrote). I assume that I am not the only person seeing this phenomenon. Thanks for your time. References: Baumeister, R. F., & Tierney, J. (2012). Willpower: Rediscovering the greatest human strength. Penguin. Newport, C. (2016). Deep Work: Rules for Focus Success in a Distracted World. Grand Central Publishing. Rousseau, D. M. (2006). Is there such a thing as evidence-based management?. Academy of management review, 31(2), 256-269.
    • Improving Online Academic Reading Success

      Saxby, Lori E.; Wittmer, Christine; Wittmer, Christine
      Topic/Problem Reading academic material online is here and is not going away. While research shows that college students prefer to read information in print rather than on a screen, they will be required to read and learn academic information online. How can we as instructors assist college students to successfully navigate online material and develop online academic reading strategies? Context The navigation of online texts is a challenge for the students who use e-texts as well as for the instructors who teach courses utilizing them. Students seem to prefer the lower cost of e-textbooks as well as the environmental benefit, but do not generally appreciate the many challenges and difficulties of e-textbook reading. Previous discussions with faculty members about this conundrum led us to investigate why reading online is a problem and what strategies are suggested to improve comprehension of online material. Approach Our research found students overwhelmingly preferred reading academic material in print rather than on a screen because of eyestrain, and they exhibited a less serious attitude when reading online (Dwyer & Davidson, 2013; Jabr, 2013; Salter, n.d.; Sandberg, 2011). In addition, reading online impacted student learning as students tended to read slower and less accurately, had trouble concentrating, and experienced decreased comprehension (Alexander & Singer, 2017; Jabr, 2013; Myrberg & Wiberg, 2015; Sandberg, 2011). Despite the problems experienced when reading online, we focused our search on what would aid instructors and students in developing online reading and comprehension strategies. We also discussed our findings with college reading colleagues at a national conference to ascertain what strategies their students found helpful. Reflection In addition to the research we found in this emerging field, discussions with other colleagues and positive interactions we have had with our students show there is evidence of strategies that can improve student learning with online academic material (Dwyer & Davidson, 2013; Hodgson, 2010; Jabr, 2013; Sandberg, 2011). These strategies include effective notetaking methods and the use of graphic organizers as well as asking students to summarize, synthesize, paraphrase and make predictions as they read. Instructor provided prompts, modeling and scaffolding can also improve online academic reading success.  A list of these strategies will be shared at the symposium and participants will be encouraged to join in the discussion and share their experiences. References Alexander, P. & Singer, L. (2017, October 15).  A new study shows that students learn way more effectively from print textbooks than screens.  The Conversation. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/students-learning-education-print-textbooks-screens-study-2017-10 Dwyer, K. & Davidson, M. (2013).  General education oral communication assessment and student preferences for learning: E-textbook versus paper textbook. Communication Teacher, 27(2), 111-125. doi: 10.1080/17404622.2012.752514 Hodgson, K. (2010, November 29).  Strategies for online reading comprehension. Instructify. Retrieved from https://intructitest.wordpress.com/2010/11/29/instructifeature-online-reading-comprehension-strategies/ Jabr, F. (2013, April 11). The reading brain in the digital age:  The science of paper versus screens. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/reading-paper-screens/ Kauffman, D, Zhao, R, & Kauffman, Y.  (2011). Effects of online note taking formats and self-monitoring prompts on learning from online text: Using technology to enhance self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 313-322. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.04.001. Myrberg, C., & Wiberg, N. (2015). Screen vs. paper: what is the difference for reading and learning? Insights, 28(2), 49–54. doi: http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.236 Niccoli, A. (2015, September 28).  Paper or tablet?  Reading recall and comprehension. EducauseReview. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2015/9/paper-or-tablet-reading-recall-and-comprehension Salter, P. (n.d.). Impact of reading from a screen versus from printed material. Retrieved from http://www.radford.act.edu.au/storage/reading-on-screens-v-paper.pdf Sandberg, K. (2011). College student academic online reading: A review of the current literature. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 42(1), 89-98. doi: 10.1080/10790195.2011.10850350
    • Occupational Therapy/Respiratory Therapy Collaboration: Understanding Roles and Early Mobility Simulation

      Mason, Jessica; Arvin, Mary Kay; Delp, Jody; Morgan, Julie; Phy, Wesley; Mason, Jessica; Arvin, Mary Kay; Delp, Jody; Morgan, Julie; Phy, Wesley
      Topic/Problem Statement: Students enrolled in healthcare programs must learn to work collaboratively to best serve patients. Outside of one’s own profession, roles of additional team members may not be clearly understood. Occupational and respiratory therapists work collaboratively as part of early mobility teams in intensive care units. Students of identified programs need to learn each other’s roles and purpose to best work collaboratively within these teams. They must also learn to communicate effectively to ensure patient safety. Context: Occupational therapy students and respiratory students both presented on their roles and scope of practice to the other discipline. Additionally, handouts were created to aid each discipline in the practice of early mobility. Following the presentations, the students completed two early mobility simulation activities. From this experience, student outcomes involved role and scope of practice recognition, the benefits of interprofessional peer teaching, and identifying the components of interprofessional collaboration and teamwork. Approach: The occupational therapy profession will need to focus on interprofessional education in the classroom to be better prepared for evolving healthcare reform impacted by emerging areas of practice within the profession (Mroz, Pitonyak, Fogelberg, & Leland, 2015). The Institute of Medicine (2003) endorsed peer-to-peer teaching to better improve healthcare quality (Buring et al., 2009). The occupational therapy students presented to the respiratory therapy students the role of occupational therapy, importance of functional and early mobility, and how to perform a stand-pivot transfer. Next, respiratory therapy students presented the role of respiratory therapy, an overview of different types of oxygen equipment, and knowledge of oxygen parameters. All students then participated in two interprofessional simulation activities requiring teamwork to transfer a patient safely while maintaining all necessary equipment, monitoring vital signs, and assessing the patient appropriately. Reflection/Discussion: At the end of the simulation, students debriefed with occupational and respiratory therapy faculty and the standardized patient. Students voiced a better understanding of one another’s roles and scope of practice. They emphasized the need for teamwork and communication when working with any patient. Many students voiced learning from the other discipline during both the presentation and simulation. The students were asked to participate in a survey at the end of the debriefing focused on the peer teaching experience. Results indicate most students agreed the interprofessional activity will help with their therapy role in the future, was time and effort well spent, and that each discipline has a responsibility to teach others. Faculty plan to continue the interprofessional activity in the future. References: Buring, S. M., Bhushan, A., Broeseker, A., Conway, S., Duncan-Hewitt, W., Hansen, L., & Westberg, S. (2009). Interprofessional education: Definitions, student competencies, and guidelines for implementation. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(4), article 59. Mroz, T.M., Pitonyak, J.S., Fogelberg, D., & Leland, N.E. (2015). Health policy perspectives – Client centeredness and health reform: Key issues for occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69, 6905090010.  Retrieved from http://ajot.aota.org/article.aspx?articleid=2436567  
    • Engagement and Higher Order Skill Proficiency of First and Second Year Medical Students A Comparison Between IUSMs Legacy and Reformed Curricula

      Francis, Brandon; Hopper, Mari K.
      In order to better prepare students for clinical practice in today’s environment, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), American Medical Association (AMA), and Accelerating Change in Medical Education Consortium (Cooke, 2010) have all called for reform in medical education. In response to these calls, the Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) transitioned from its legacy curriculum (LC) to a newly reformed curriculum (RC) in the 2016-2017 academic year. The LC focused primarily on didactic methods to deliver necessary material, while RC incorporated active learning into at least 50% of student contact hours. This study set-out to determine if students enrolled in Indiana University’s RC demonstrated higher levels of engagement and proficiency in use of Bloom’s higher order skills (HOS) than students in LC; furthermore, the authors conducted analysis of student development in engagement and HOS from first year (MS1) to second year (MS2), focusing on MS1 students initially in the lowest HOS quartile. Following IRB approval, study participants’ engagement and HOS were annually assessed during MS1 and MS2 for the Class of 2019 (LC) and the Class of 2020 (RC). Engagement was determined using a validated Survey of Student Engagement (SSE) (Ahlfeldt, 2005). HOS proficiency was assessed using the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA+), professionally developed and validated by the Council for Aid to Education (https://cae.org/flagship-assessments-cla-cwra/cla/). Preliminary statistical analysis indicated that RC students increased engagement significantly from MS1 (39.0±7.0) to MS2 (40.8±5.3) and demonstrated significantly higher engagement than LC MS2 students (36.3±5.3); however, there were no differences in HOS proficiency when comparing RC to LC, or MS1 to MS2. Additionally, RC MS1 students in the lowest HOS quartile (1688.8±53.1) demonstrated significantly increased HOS when re-tested during MS2 (1809.5±86.8). This phenomenon was not seen in LC students. Implementation of RC resulted in higher levels of student engagement than LC and, despite literature suggesting that more engaged learners will become more proficient in HOS (Bonwell & Eison, 1991), there were no differences in HOS group means between RC and LC. 
    • Does What Students Believe Predict How Well They Evaluate Arguments?

      Dandotkar, Srikanth; Griggs, Shelby
      Abstract is not included by request of the authors.  Please contact the authors for additional information. References Bendixen, L. D., & Rule, D. C. (2004). An integrative approach to personal epistemology: A guiding model. Educational Psychologist, 39, 69–80. Britt, M. A., Kurby, C. A., Dandotkar, S., & Wolfe, C. R. (2008). I agreed with what? Memory for simple argument claims. Discourse Processes, 45(1), 52–84. Dandotkar, S., Magliano, J. P., & Britt, M. A. (2016). Effect Logical Relatedness and Semantic Overlap on Argument Evaluation. Discourse Processes, 53(7), 581-602. Ferguson, L.E., Bråten, I., Strømsø, H.I., & Anmarkrud, Ø. (2013). Epistemic beliefs and comprehension in the context of reading multiple documents: Examining the role of conflict. International Journal of Educational Research, 62, 100-114. Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (Eds.). (2002). Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Schommer-Aikins, M., Duell, O. K., & Hutter, R. (2005). Epistemological Beliefs, Mathematical Problem-solving Beliefs, and Academic Performance of Medical School Students. The Elementary School Journal, 105 (3).289 - 304. Wood, P. K., & Kardash, C. A. (2002). Critical elements in the design and analysis of studies of epistemology. In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.) Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing (pp. 231-260). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    • Building Faculty Confidence in Teaching Writing in the Disciplines: Long-Term Strategic Planning and Short-Term Tactics to Promote Student Success

      Santee, Joy
      Topic/Problem Statement and Context: If you have ever looked at a pile of papers with dread for what you’ll find when you start reading them, felt unsure about providing writing-related feedback to students or avoided assigning much writing altogether, you’re definitely not alone. While effective written communication is a foundational skill for students’ academic and professional success in most disciplines, faculty sometimes have difficulty finding time to incorporate writing instruction into content-heavy courses or lack the knowledge or confidence to teach or assess writing effectively, leading to product-focused approaches to writing instruction and less-than-stellar writing from students. However, scaffolding smaller components of writing instruction throughout the curriculum of any given discipline and adding more frequent low-stakes writing assignments can improve students’ performance in discipline-specific writing contexts. Approach: This presentation introduces two approaches to help faculty teach writing better within their disciplines: one long-term strategic planning approach and one set of short-term tactics. First, it draws on disciplinarily-diverse examples from the University of Minnesota’s Writing Enriched Curriculum program to introduce a long-term planning process for strategically incorporating effective writing instruction in any given academic program through articulation of discipline-specific writing characteristics (both academic and professional), definition of desired student writing outcomes, and curriculum mapping that distributes writing instruction throughout a student’s program in ways appropriate to the specific discipline (University of Minnesota). Second, it provides a brief introduction to ways that that low-stakes, unassessed or minimally assessed writing instruction can be incorporated into classes with minimal impact on instructional time or faculty workload (Elbow 1997), to promote enhanced critical thinking (Çavdar and Doe 2012) and confidence (Brownell, Price, and Steinman 2013), two key elements in student writing success. Reflection/Discussion: What emerges from these two approaches is a set of practices that can be incorporated in any discipline to improve student writing and decrease faculty frustration with teaching and grading writing in their fields. Students’ writing improves when they more clearly understand discipline-specific expectations of writing, and faculty can use their articulations of effective writing in their disciplines to improve instruction, feedback to students, and program assessment. Topic/Problem Statement: As educators, we want our students to learn complex formulas, read challenging pieces of literature, and perhaps perform some academic research (Rousseau, 2006). Yet, can students who are quite addicted to smartphones perform deep work or are they stuck in a life of shallowness (Newport, 2016)? Evidence suggests that prolonged smartphone use robs students of the willpower necessary to perform the cognitively demanding tasks we ask of them (Baumeister and Tierney, 2012). Hence, in this session I aim (1) to present data on internet addiction, (2) to have the audience share their feelings on whether smartphones have changed students, and (3) stimulate interest in a work group dedicated to researching internet addiction and disseminating strategies for combating it. Context: I assume that there is a chance that while you are reviewing this submission, you have looked at your phone at least once and have multiple browser windows open. That is also how our students operate in class – and we cannot solve it by just telling students to put their phones away. Such short-term solutions do not produce long-term results. Students need to become aware of how their attention is diverted and their willpower is depleted. Approach: Given only 20 minutes, I aim to build an awareness of this issue through presenting some selected research on what smartphone use is doing to students. I also aim to report results of an internet fast assignment that my students performed. Ideally, I would also like to recruit a group of colleagues interested in working on this issue with me. Discussion: I use 2012 as a proxy for “when things changed in the classroom.†The iPhone was released in 2007, but around 2012, every student came to class with a device more powerful than the spaceship that went to the moon. Before 2012, when I entered the classroom, students were talking to each other. After 2012, most of them were face down in a screen until class started. Before 2012, I could engage a classroom in a period-long discussion. After 2012, they stopped responding and I had to alter my pedagogy to get them to respond (I posed a question, had them write “minute papers,†then asked what they wrote). I assume that I am not the only person seeing this phenomenon. Thanks for your time. References: Baumeister, R. F., & Tierney, J. (2012). Willpower: Rediscovering the greatest human strength. Penguin. Newport, C. (2016). Deep Work: Rules for Focus Success in a Distracted World. Grand Central Publishing. Rousseau, D. M. (2006). Is there such a thing as “evidence-based management†?. Academy of management review, 31(2), 256-269. Brownell, S. E., Price, J. V., & Steinman, L. (2013). A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science. Advances in Physiology Education, 37 (1), 70-79. Çavdar, G., & Doe, S. (2012). Learning through writing: Teaching critical thinking skills in writing assignments. PS: Political Science & Politics, 45 (2), 298-306. Elbow, P. (1997). High stakes and low stakes in assigning and responding to writing. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, (69), 5-13. Nicol, D. (2010). From monologue to dialogue: improving written feedback processes in mass higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35 (5), 501-517. University of Minnesota (2018). Writing Enriched Curriculum (WEC) Model. Retrieved from https://wec.umn.edu/wec-model