• Engagement and Higher Order Skill Proficiency of First and Second Year Medical Students A Comparison Between IUSMs Legacy and Reformed Curricula

      Francis, Brandon; Hopper, Mari K.
      In order to better prepare students for clinical practice in today’s environment, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), American Medical Association (AMA), and Accelerating Change in Medical Education Consortium (Cooke, 2010) have all called for reform in medical education. In response to these calls, the Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) transitioned from its legacy curriculum (LC) to a newly reformed curriculum (RC) in the 2016-2017 academic year. The LC focused primarily on didactic methods to deliver necessary material, while RC incorporated active learning into at least 50% of student contact hours. This study set-out to determine if students enrolled in Indiana University’s RC demonstrated higher levels of engagement and proficiency in use of Bloom’s higher order skills (HOS) than students in LC; furthermore, the authors conducted analysis of student development in engagement and HOS from first year (MS1) to second year (MS2), focusing on MS1 students initially in the lowest HOS quartile. Following IRB approval, study participants’ engagement and HOS were annually assessed during MS1 and MS2 for the Class of 2019 (LC) and the Class of 2020 (RC). Engagement was determined using a validated Survey of Student Engagement (SSE) (Ahlfeldt, 2005). HOS proficiency was assessed using the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA+), professionally developed and validated by the Council for Aid to Education (https://cae.org/flagship-assessments-cla-cwra/cla/). Preliminary statistical analysis indicated that RC students increased engagement significantly from MS1 (39.0±7.0) to MS2 (40.8±5.3) and demonstrated significantly higher engagement than LC MS2 students (36.3±5.3); however, there were no differences in HOS proficiency when comparing RC to LC, or MS1 to MS2. Additionally, RC MS1 students in the lowest HOS quartile (1688.8±53.1) demonstrated significantly increased HOS when re-tested during MS2 (1809.5±86.8). This phenomenon was not seen in LC students. Implementation of RC resulted in higher levels of student engagement than LC and, despite literature suggesting that more engaged learners will become more proficient in HOS (Bonwell & Eison, 1991), there were no differences in HOS group means between RC and LC. 
    • Flipping Precalculus to Improve Student Learning

      Gentle, Adrian P.; Wilding, William; Wilding, William
      Precalculus is designed to prepare students for college-level calculus, and as such the course serves students majoring in a variety of STEM disciplines and pre-professional programs. Its efficacy, however, is unclear. Precalculus courses tend to have a high failure rate, while those students who actually proceed to calculus may not gain much benefit from the course (Sonnert & Sadler 2014). We describe a quasi-experimental study in which we flip an undergraduate precalculus course with the goal of improving student learning and increasing success rates through the implementation of evidence-based teaching strategies. While there is some evidence for the effectiveness of flipped pedagogy in improving student learning (Talbert 2017), positive outcomes are likely critically dependent on the specific implementation of the flipped classroom (O'Flaherty & Phillips 2015). In particular, improvements in student learning outcomes may be largely attributable to the active learning occurring during class (DeLozier & Rhodes 2017). Our flipped course structure is guided by these findings, together with the evidence-based design principles outlined by Lo, Hew & Chen (2017). Two sections of precalculus were flipped during a recent semester, with students expected to watch a short video (approximately 15 minutes), attempt a few introductory problems, and complete a brief reflection quiz before class. During class the students actively engaged in group-based problem solving with the support of the instructor. The student learning outcomes in these flipped sections are compared with a traditional “interactive lecture”-based section of precalculus taught by the same instructor in the same semester. In addition to comparing student learning outcomes, we use the Short Attitudes Towards Mathematics Inventory (Lim & Chapman 2013) to track affective changes, including enjoyment, the perceived value of mathematics, and mathematical efficacy (self-confidence) between the flipped and control sections.
    • Good Teachers, Scholarly Teachers, and Scholars of Teaching and Learning

      Friberg, Jennifer; Friberg, Jennifer
      Keynote Description: University instructors approach course design in unique and personal ways, often reflective of their own experiences, preferences, and perspectives. Despite the array of approaches instructors might use during a semester to teach, explore, or assess content, what IS uniform across course design efforts is the desire to advance students thinking and learning. While some course instructors look to design meaningful learning experiences through instinct and past training, others turn towards evidence to inform their pedagogical choices. Others engage as scholars to study learning in their classroom settings. This keynote will explore good teaching, scholarly teaching, and the scholarship of teaching and learning to explain a continuum of teaching and learning in university classrooms. Resources will be provided to support evidence-based approaches to teaching and the systematic study/reflection of teaching and learning.
    • History and Communication Gateways: Meaningful Learning and First Year Impact

      Tobin, Kathleen A.; Roach, Thomas J; Tobin, Kathleen A.; Roach, Thomas J
      Topic/Problem The John Gardner Institute for Excellence in Undergraduate Education identified history as a subject with high levels of attrition among first generation college students in their first year of college. That is not the case with the subject of communication. This project explores similarities and differences in the ways students with learn about history and communication during their first year and identifies possible teaching practices common to communication that may be useful in the history classroom. In particular we will look at communication exercises requiring skills development and social integration. Context HIST 10500 Survey of Global History and COM 11400 Fundamentals of Speech Communication are prescribed first semester courses that fulfill general education and humanities and social sciences requirements for all undergraduates at Purdue University Northwest. While the differences in course design, intention, and expectations are significant, students must find value in each of them to progress toward program completion. In this first stage of research, we look at student demographic data in each of these courses and rates of completion and retention in the following year. Approach Purdue University Northwest is one of eleven institutions nationwide (2-year and 4-year institutions) participating in the American Historical Association’s History Gateways project, funded by a $1.65 million grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Institute in conjunction with the Gardner Institute. It is designed to evaluate ways in which students are introduced to the subject of history during their first year, with the possibility of “substantial revision of introductory college-level history courses to better serve students from all backgrounds and align more effectively with the future needs of a complex society (AHA).” In these initial steps, we are working with our Office of Institutional Research to gather data with the goal of determining current completion and retention rates. We begin by comparing retention rates with the Department of Communication and Creative Arts. Starting with the Bruskin Associates survey of 1973, public speaking routinely is cited along with death, dentists, and snakes as one of Americans’ greatest fears, making it somewhat commensurate with the intimidating nature of history. We will also consider how course design, stated learning objectives, and teaching techniques may help students find value in what they learn. Moreover we will consider the impact of speech assignments focused on skills development and group project assignments that stimulate interaction among students outside the classroom. We will also survey students before and after their first assignments and at the end of the semester to see if their perspectives on value have changed. This is the first stage of a 3-year project. Reflection/Discussion Because we are in the very early stages of the project, we are eager to share the process with other faculty engaged in first year teaching. Hearing of other experiences may help highlight some of the issues faced in the areas of engagement and retention. References: American Historical Association (AHA) History Gateways: https://www.historians.org/historygateways Gardner Institute Gateways to Completion: https://www.jngi.org/gateways-to-completion/
    • How reputation went down with the ship: How students can apply the situational crisis communication theory

      DiTirro, Lindsey; DiTirro, Lindsey
      Topic/Problem Statement: It can be difficult for students to not only understand the different theories in the public relations field, but to understand the importance of using theory in real-life situations. It is also important that students are able to apply theory to real-world examples. Theory can be somewhat abstract and unrelatable for students. However, they will need to apply theory to practice in their jobs, so it is an important skill they learn in the classroom first. Context: For PRL 101, Introduction to Public Relations, it is important students are exposed to different public relations theories. These theories will be used in subsequent PR courses. A foundation in theory is important for success in PR. However, theory does not always seem like it can fit in real-life and that it is more a classroom skill. Creating activities that allow theory to seem approachable and applicable are necessary to connect students with the content. Approach: This case study assignment teaches students the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) (Coombs, 2007) by applying the theory’s concepts to an actual public relations crisis, different situations Carnival Cruise Lines faced. The goal of this assignment is to have small groups present an opening statement for a mock news conference to demonstrate how they applied SCCT to create a post-crisis message. Because these are situations that already occurred, students are able to compare their responses with how Carnival actually responded. This activity provides an opportunity to learn theory, apply that theory to practice and develop important PR skills that can be used in a range of crisis situations.  Reflection/Discussion: Through this assignment students are able to learn about an influential PR theory and apply that theory. However, most importantly, students are able to learn that careful planning is needed to create and implement post-crisis communication. It is easy for students to judge Carnival for making these PR blunders. Yet, when the students are tasked to create their own responses, they begin to realize how many factors play a role into a crisis situation. This activity creates a fun, interactive classroom for students. This activity could be applied to many different situations and theories and would be easy to replicate in other PR classrooms and even other disciplines. Reference: Coombs, W. T. (2007). Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: The development and application of situational crisis communication theory. Corporate Reputation Review, 10, 163-176. 
    • I don't want to hear it: Student preferences in online learning lecture formats

      Hughes, Amber; Pritchard. Mikah; Hughes, Amber; Pritchard. Mikah
      Should student preferences in lecture delivery be considered? In the age of mobile learning, media creation and delivery are important. Student preferences seem to drive student consumption of learning resources. In this presentation, we will dive into the research on use of media in online courses along with sharing our own experiences in exploring student preferences in online learning. The use of video has reached a point where is no longer just a popular tool, but is a pervasive component of teaching (Sonicfoundry, 2013). However, the rise in podcasts (Edison Research, 2018) suggests that students may prefer audio-only content that is easily accessible from mobile devices over video content that requires a strong connection for streaming. We sought to explore this hypothesis by offering students access to both podcasts and videos of the same lectures in multiple online graduate counseling courses. Using technology in teaching, whether in fully online classes or to supplement other teaching formats, enhances teaching and learning. Multimedia tools can address multiple sensory modalities creating more meaningful learning opportunities for students (Mayer, 2002). While researchers and instructors may hesitate to consider student preferences in learning (Woolfitt, 2015), student preferences seem to drive student consumption of learning resources. For example, research suggests that students consume videos from mobile devices and prefer shorter videos (Buzzetto-More, 2014). These factors indicate students are opting for convenience in their consumption of course-related media. Because of this, we feel it is important to consider student preferences in the creation of course materials to supplement learning in both online and face-to-face environments. Based on our findings, students seemed to prefer video lectures far more than the podcast lectures based on view and download statistics from our study. However, students who did utilize the podcasts appreciated the option. In addition to these findings, we were surprised by some of the feedback we received regarding the lectures. For example, students seemed to like the more unscripted moments in the videos – jokes, interruptions, examples – that we might be inclined to edit out. Our conclusion is that offering students multiple options for consuming lectures is a way to reach more students. However, if you have limited time, video seems to be preferred by students. References Buzzetto-More, N. A. (2014). An examination of undergraduate student’s perceptions and predilections of the use of YouTube in the teaching and learning process. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 10(1), 17-32. Edison Research. (2018). On the rise: Steady growth for podcasts, rapid growth for smart speakers. The Infinite Dial 2018. Retrieved from https://www.edisonresearch.com/ Mayer, R. E. (2002). Multimedia learning. In Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 41, pp. 85-139). Academic Press. Sonicfoundry. (2013). Academic video at a tipping point. Madison. Retrieved from http://www.sonicfoundry.com/white-paper/academic-video-tipping-point-preparing-your-campus-future Woolfitt, Z. (2015). The effective use of video in higher education. Lectoraat Teaching, Learning and Technology. Inholland University of Applied Sciences. Rotterdam. 
    • Improving Online Academic Reading Success

      Saxby, Lori E.; Wittmer, Christine; Wittmer, Christine
      Topic/Problem Reading academic material online is here and is not going away. While research shows that college students prefer to read information in print rather than on a screen, they will be required to read and learn academic information online. How can we as instructors assist college students to successfully navigate online material and develop online academic reading strategies? Context The navigation of online texts is a challenge for the students who use e-texts as well as for the instructors who teach courses utilizing them. Students seem to prefer the lower cost of e-textbooks as well as the environmental benefit, but do not generally appreciate the many challenges and difficulties of e-textbook reading. Previous discussions with faculty members about this conundrum led us to investigate why reading online is a problem and what strategies are suggested to improve comprehension of online material. Approach Our research found students overwhelmingly preferred reading academic material in print rather than on a screen because of eyestrain, and they exhibited a less serious attitude when reading online (Dwyer & Davidson, 2013; Jabr, 2013; Salter, n.d.; Sandberg, 2011). In addition, reading online impacted student learning as students tended to read slower and less accurately, had trouble concentrating, and experienced decreased comprehension (Alexander & Singer, 2017; Jabr, 2013; Myrberg & Wiberg, 2015; Sandberg, 2011). Despite the problems experienced when reading online, we focused our search on what would aid instructors and students in developing online reading and comprehension strategies. We also discussed our findings with college reading colleagues at a national conference to ascertain what strategies their students found helpful. Reflection In addition to the research we found in this emerging field, discussions with other colleagues and positive interactions we have had with our students show there is evidence of strategies that can improve student learning with online academic material (Dwyer & Davidson, 2013; Hodgson, 2010; Jabr, 2013; Sandberg, 2011). These strategies include effective notetaking methods and the use of graphic organizers as well as asking students to summarize, synthesize, paraphrase and make predictions as they read. Instructor provided prompts, modeling and scaffolding can also improve online academic reading success.  A list of these strategies will be shared at the symposium and participants will be encouraged to join in the discussion and share their experiences. References Alexander, P. & Singer, L. (2017, October 15).  A new study shows that students learn way more effectively from print textbooks than screens.  The Conversation. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/students-learning-education-print-textbooks-screens-study-2017-10 Dwyer, K. & Davidson, M. (2013).  General education oral communication assessment and student preferences for learning: E-textbook versus paper textbook. Communication Teacher, 27(2), 111-125. doi: 10.1080/17404622.2012.752514 Hodgson, K. (2010, November 29).  Strategies for online reading comprehension. Instructify. Retrieved from https://intructitest.wordpress.com/2010/11/29/instructifeature-online-reading-comprehension-strategies/ Jabr, F. (2013, April 11). The reading brain in the digital age:  The science of paper versus screens. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/reading-paper-screens/ Kauffman, D, Zhao, R, & Kauffman, Y.  (2011). Effects of online note taking formats and self-monitoring prompts on learning from online text: Using technology to enhance self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 313-322. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.04.001. Myrberg, C., & Wiberg, N. (2015). Screen vs. paper: what is the difference for reading and learning? Insights, 28(2), 49–54. doi: http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.236 Niccoli, A. (2015, September 28).  Paper or tablet?  Reading recall and comprehension. EducauseReview. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2015/9/paper-or-tablet-reading-recall-and-comprehension Salter, P. (n.d.). Impact of reading from a screen versus from printed material. Retrieved from http://www.radford.act.edu.au/storage/reading-on-screens-v-paper.pdf Sandberg, K. (2011). College student academic online reading: A review of the current literature. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 42(1), 89-98. doi: 10.1080/10790195.2011.10850350
    • It Takes a Team to Teach Teamwork

      Kalb, Elizabeth; Chen, Chen; Rinks, Bonnie; Opatrny Pease, Marie; Rathee, Ekka; Hall, Melissa; Kalb, Elizabeth; Chen, Chen; Rinks, Bonnie; Opatrny Pease, Marie; et al.
      Evidence supports reduced medical error when teamwork is the base for collaborative decision making. Interprofessional education (IPE), which is when students from two or more professions learn from one another and effectively collaborate to improve outcomes, has become a standard in health profession education. There are multiple ways of integrating this approach into curricula, but there must be cooperation, collaboration and coordination among educators in different disciplines to make it possible. This presentation will provide an overview of a coordinated team effort on the part of faculty to bring together students from different healthcare approaches and different disciplines within the university to work as teams in primary care clinics. This collaboration will help students (a) develop an appreciation of what each discipline contributes to improve patient care, and (b) work together as a team to plan recommendations for patients and families for the purpose of improving health and lifestyle. Graduate students in social work and different specialties within the graduate nursing program have been involved. The focus of the presentation will be the strategies used to motivate students to come together across disciplines and collaborate. This includes an overview of TeamSTEPPS® training during an eight-hour orientation to the project, design and promotion of learning modules to be used by the IPE teams while in clinics, use of case studies to form collaborative interaction among students, scheduled pharmacology consultations for the IPE teams with a pharmacist, and recruitment of students through development of a class that promoted the importance of IPE along with student reflection.  Since January 2017, 18 student teams have worked together at different community sites established through academic partnerships. These student teams as well as site personnel have provided valuable feedback to the project team regarding their experiences. Student feedback has helped in understanding how better to motivate and enhance student learning for the future of the IPE project.
    • Modified IBL Method with an Oral Defense

      Trulen, Justin; Trulen, Justin
      Topic/Problem Statement: This talk focuses on the learning outcome of “do the students have a deeper understanding of the given material or are they going through the motions without really understanding?” Using writing alone does not truly reflect student understanding. This talk will lay out a structure that tries to answer this question at the advanced course level. Context: The primary courses of focus are Analysis and Abstract Algebra. The average class size is currently about 6 students. Class makeup is about 50-50 pure mathematics majors and education majors. The outcomes are: better understanding and application of course material, and the student’s ability to communicate mathematical ideas, especially oral communication. Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) has a lot of evidence supporting its effectiveness in mathe- matical classrooms [3, 4, 1, 5]. Furthermore, in 2017 the Conference Board of the Mathemat- ical Sciences has endorsed IBL [8]. The Fall of 2017 Analysis course was taught as a 50-50 Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) and traditional lecture. Though there were some successes with the class structure, it did have its draw backs. There were still glaring gaps of understanding the course material because of the lack of time students had to defend their work. Approach: In the Fall of 2018, the Abstract Algebra took on a more tradition IBL proof based course drawing elements from [2, 6, 9, 5, 10]. A book from the Journal of Inquiry-Based Learning in Mathematics was adopted [7]. The overall structure had a brief discussion of new definitions which quickly lead into computation like questions and examples. As proficiency in definitions were acquired the students move on to proofing/disproving theorems which required defending their work in front of their peers. After each exam, students must complete a one-on-one oral defense of their exam. The grading structure of class, rubric for the defense, and anecdotal evidence will be discussed. Reflection: This change to almost full IBL resulted in several positive things. First, the level of difficultly in exam questions increased dramatically while not negatively affecting grades. Second, students have become more critical of not only their classmate’s proofs but their own as well. Finally, conversational mathematics at this level is becoming easier than it has been in past classes. Unfortunately, this process is slow in nature. Specifically the overall structure on how homework is handled, though worked well, needs to be adjusted to manage expectations. This is to ensure students stay on an appropriate pace. References D. Bressoud, Evidence for inquiry based learning, Retrieved from http://launchings.blogspot.com/2011/07/the-worst-way-to-teach.html. D. Ernst, A. Hodge, and S. Yoshinobu, What is inquiry-based learning?, Notices of the AMS 64 (2017), no. 6, 570{574. S. Freeman, S. L. Eddy, M. McDonough, M. K. Smith, N. Okoroafor, Hannah Jordt, and M. P. Wenderoth, Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (2014), no. 23, 8410{8415, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1319030111. M. Kogan and S. Laursen, Assessing long-term effects of inquiry-based learning: A case study from college mathematics, Innovative Higher Education 39 (2014), 183{199, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-013-9269-9. G. Kuster, E. Johnson, K. Keene, and C. Andrews-Larson, Inquiry-oriented instruction: A conceptualization of the instructional principles, PRIMUS (2017), no. 26. S. Laursen, M. L. Hassi, M. Kogan, and A. B. Hunter, Evaluation of the ibl mathematics project: Student and instructor outcomes of inquiry-based learning in college mathematics, Retrieved from https://www.colorado.edu/eer/sites/default/_les/attached-_les/iblmathexecsumm050511.pdf. M. L. Morrow, Introductory abstract algebra, Journal of Inquiry-Based Learning in Mathematics (May 2012), no. 26. Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, Active learning in post-secondary mathematics education, Retrieved from http://www.cbmsweb.org/Statements/Active Learning Statement.pdf. C. Rasmussen and O. N. Kwon, An inquiry-oriented approach to undergraduate mathematics, Journal of Mathematical Behavior (2007), no. 26, 189{194, DOI: 10.1080/10511970.2017.1338807. C. Rasmussen, K. Marrongelle, O. N. Kwon, and A. Hodge, Four goals for instructors using inquiry-based learning, Manuscript submitted for publication.
    • More than a Conference: Building Online and In-Class Student Engagement by Attending USIs Health Informatics Tri-State Summit

      Wilson, Gabriela; Wilson, Gabriela
      Problem Statement: Students today can no longer rely only on the ability to accumulate discipline-based information for career success. They need to be able to analyze and evaluate information, solve problems, work interprofessionally and communicate effectively. As educators, our role is to provide our students with the opportunities to participate in meaningful projects in which they play an active role in shaping and enhancing their learning experiences (Delialioglu, 2012). Context: This presentation will highlight assignments built in four different Health Informatics classes offered both online and in face-to-face settings through participation in a conference provided on campus (i.e., Health Informatics Tri-State Summit). This event was used as a vehicle to actively engage students in the material, as well as provide networking and participation in online communities that might not exist in real life. The presentation will emphasize the bridge that was built between online and face-to-face students by creating assignments that involved both groups of students. It will also address the value of engaging students as partners in learning and teaching as the faculty member transitioned from an instructor to facilitator because of this approach. Approach: Transformative learning occurs when students are challenged to think not only critically but also creatively, as well as communicate and collaborate with one another (Freudenberg, Brimble, Vyvyan, & Corby, 2008). This can be accomplished by using information and technology, which need to align with the knowledge of learning (Keane, Keane, & Blicblau, 2016).  As a result, students enrolled in three courses (i.e., Health Informatics (HI301.001); Electronic Health Records and Enterprise Systems (HI302.N01); Social Media Monitoring in Healthcare (HI304.001 and HI304.N01)) were required to attend the 2018 Health Informatics Tri-State Summit organized by the College of Nursing and Health Professions at the University of Southern Indiana. Instead of taking attendance, students received participation points based on social media activity during the conference. The students enrolled in HI301.001 were graded based on the meaningful tweets posted during the event. The students enrolled in HI304.001 and HI304.N01 were assigned to groups and became part of a fictitious consulting team charged with examining the Twitter activity. Their task was to identify an analytic tool that could track the social media activity of all participants during the event and write a report to be presented to the Conference Planning Committee. Students enrolled in HI302.N01 worked in teams and developed a presentation that was relevant to the topics presented during the conference. The group presentations were exhibited using robots that were controlled by students via an app on their mobile devices. Reflection/Discussion: Attending the 1-day long conference presented students with an opportunity to learn how technology and social media can be used to increase the timely dissemination of health information, facilitate interactive communication, and most importantly, network and engage via social communities outside the classroom.  Furthermore, students had the opportunity to listen to reputable speakers on current topics and research in health informatics and healthcare in general. Through the class activities that were designed in each course, students improved not only their discipline-related knowledge, but also teamwork and communication skills. Reflection submitted by students in the form of a blog indicated that they perceived greater confidence in their abilities. From an educator’s perspective, actively engaging students via participation in a conference proved to be an effective tool that can improve teaching and learning by placing concepts in the context, keeping course content up-to-date, and fostering a sense of community. Bibliography Delialioglu, O. (2012). Student Engagement in Blended Learning Environments with Lecture-Based and Problem-Based Instructional Approaches. Educational Technology & Society, 15(3), 310-322. Retrieved 12 18, 2018, from http://ifets.info/journals/15_3/24.pdf Freudenberg, B. D., Brimble, M. A., Vyvyan, V., & Corby, D. E. (2008). A Penny for Your Thoughts: Can Participation in a Student-Industry Conference Improve Students’ Presentation Self-Efficacy and More? The International Journal of Learning: Annual Review, 15(5), 187-200. Retrieved 12 18, 2018, from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/delivery.cfm/ssrn_id1683150_code498263.pdf?abstractid=1493416&mirid=1 Keane, T., Keane, W. F., & Blicblau, A. S. (2016). Beyond traditional literacy: Learning and transformative practices using ICT. Education and Information Technologies, 21(4), 769-781. Retrieved 12 18, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10639-014-9353-5.pdf  
    • Occupational Therapy/Respiratory Therapy Collaboration: Understanding Roles and Early Mobility Simulation

      Mason, Jessica; Arvin, Mary Kay; Delp, Jody; Morgan, Julie; Phy, Wesley; Mason, Jessica; Arvin, Mary Kay; Delp, Jody; Morgan, Julie; Phy, Wesley
      Topic/Problem Statement: Students enrolled in healthcare programs must learn to work collaboratively to best serve patients. Outside of one’s own profession, roles of additional team members may not be clearly understood. Occupational and respiratory therapists work collaboratively as part of early mobility teams in intensive care units. Students of identified programs need to learn each other’s roles and purpose to best work collaboratively within these teams. They must also learn to communicate effectively to ensure patient safety. Context: Occupational therapy students and respiratory students both presented on their roles and scope of practice to the other discipline. Additionally, handouts were created to aid each discipline in the practice of early mobility. Following the presentations, the students completed two early mobility simulation activities. From this experience, student outcomes involved role and scope of practice recognition, the benefits of interprofessional peer teaching, and identifying the components of interprofessional collaboration and teamwork. Approach: The occupational therapy profession will need to focus on interprofessional education in the classroom to be better prepared for evolving healthcare reform impacted by emerging areas of practice within the profession (Mroz, Pitonyak, Fogelberg, & Leland, 2015). The Institute of Medicine (2003) endorsed peer-to-peer teaching to better improve healthcare quality (Buring et al., 2009). The occupational therapy students presented to the respiratory therapy students the role of occupational therapy, importance of functional and early mobility, and how to perform a stand-pivot transfer. Next, respiratory therapy students presented the role of respiratory therapy, an overview of different types of oxygen equipment, and knowledge of oxygen parameters. All students then participated in two interprofessional simulation activities requiring teamwork to transfer a patient safely while maintaining all necessary equipment, monitoring vital signs, and assessing the patient appropriately. Reflection/Discussion: At the end of the simulation, students debriefed with occupational and respiratory therapy faculty and the standardized patient. Students voiced a better understanding of one another’s roles and scope of practice. They emphasized the need for teamwork and communication when working with any patient. Many students voiced learning from the other discipline during both the presentation and simulation. The students were asked to participate in a survey at the end of the debriefing focused on the peer teaching experience. Results indicate most students agreed the interprofessional activity will help with their therapy role in the future, was time and effort well spent, and that each discipline has a responsibility to teach others. Faculty plan to continue the interprofessional activity in the future. References: Buring, S. M., Bhushan, A., Broeseker, A., Conway, S., Duncan-Hewitt, W., Hansen, L., & Westberg, S. (2009). Interprofessional education: Definitions, student competencies, and guidelines for implementation. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(4), article 59. Mroz, T.M., Pitonyak, J.S., Fogelberg, D., & Leland, N.E. (2015). Health policy perspectives – Client centeredness and health reform: Key issues for occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69, 6905090010.  Retrieved from http://ajot.aota.org/article.aspx?articleid=2436567  
    • Opening the Academic Gates: Using Threshold Concepts of Writing Studies as a Framework for Entering a Discipline

      Hanson, Morgan; Hanson, Morgan
      Topic/Problem Statement: Current theories on student learning express the inherent struggle with learning that students encounter when engaging with a new discipline in the university. One way to help students work through the troublesomeness that comes with learning about a new discipline is via threshold concepts, a framework first introduced by Jan H. F. Meyer and Ray Land (2003). In this poster presentation, I provide strategies for integrating threshold concepts of writing studies into course writing assignments (informal and formal) to increase participation in academic discourse and academic literacy and to minimize disciplinary gatekeeping. Context: I focus this presentation on a first-year composition (FYC) course (in this case, ENG 201), a Core 39 writing course at USI. I also study the English department’s program objectives for ENG 201 and Core 39 assessment rubric(s) to demonstrate how threshold concepts can further articulate the goals of the department and the university, thus enabling students to more effectively engage within USI’s academic community. Approach: In 2015, Linda Adler-Kassner and Elizabeth Wardle, along with other writing studies scholars, established threshold concepts for writing in Naming What We Know: Threshold Concepts of Writing Studies (NWWK). Building on the work of Jan H. F. Meyer and Ray Land (2003), Adler-Kassner and Wardle define threshold concepts as “concepts critical for continued learning and participation in an area or within a community of practice” (2). In this project, I take threshold concepts from NWWK, and I integrate them into formal and informal writing assignments to provide students with a more accessible way to work with key ideas in the field and departmental and university objectives. I provide strategies for creating reading responses that emphasize reflection on course content via a threshold concepts lens. I also demonstrate ways to include threshold concepts into major writing assignments to meet departmental and university goals for the course. Reflection/Discussion: Threshold concepts, with their accessible interpretations of major disciplinary knowledge, create a bridge for students to cross over the murky waters of entering into a new discipline.Through this approach, students gain confidence in writing and academic discourse and literacy, which allows them to ease into the work of the university. Moreover, students gain a new way to talk about writing, which can be used in other courses. To that end, then, instructors can take threshold concepts of writing studies and incorporate them into their own courses. Works Cited: Adler-Kassner, Linda, and Elizabeth Wardle, editors. Naming What We Know: Threshold Concepts of Writing Studies. Utah State UP, 2015. Meyer, Jan H. F., and Ray Land. Threshold Concepts and Troublesome Knowledge: Linkages to Ways of Thinking and Practising within the Disciplines. Occasional Report 4. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, 2003. ETL Project, www.etl.tla.ed.ac.uk/docs/ETLreport4.pdf.  Accessed 25 July 2017.
    • Shaping a collaborative model of food services and public health: A multipronged approach using interprofessional education

      Nimkar, Swateja; Ramos, Elizabeth; Borowiecki, Chris; Nimkar, Swateja; Ramos, Elizabeth; Borowiecki, Chris
      Topic: The purpose of this interprofessional education (IPE) project was to introduce and encourage collaborative learning across the two professions of public health and food service management using community expertise. The intended learning outcomes for students were improved communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution skills. Additionally, students were also expected to identify and negotiate specific roles and responsibilities while working with members of another profession. Context: The project was conceptualized by two faculty from Food and Nutrition, and Health Services programs at the University of Southern Indiana (USI). Undergraduate students and faculty from Quantity Food Production and Purchasing and Public Health courses collaborated with the Vanderburgh County Health Department (VCHD) to ensure best food safety and sanitation practice in a real world environment. Approach: The faculty partnered with VCHD to provide students with the training and resources related to food safety and public health issues in the area of commercial and quantity food production. Quantity food students were ServSafe certified and public health students study food safety topics for this project while engaging in five IPE activities spread out during one academic semester at the College of Nursing and Health Professions (CNHP). Following the initial meetings and education sessions, students engaged in a final project, where public health students served as food safety inspectors as quantity foods students prepared elaborate cultural meals offered to members from the campus community. Finally, students conducted a debate on food safety issues as a culminating experience for the IPE project. Reflection and Discussion: Through this inter-professional collaboration, public health students learned the various aspects of reducing risk for foodborne illnesses and quantity foods production students experienced using Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plans to maintain food safety while preparing cultural meals. Both groups utilized an audit system that was discussed in advance by them to identify, analyze, and minimize hazards associated with foodborne illnesses. This project was conducted with direct supervision from faculty teaching the two classes. Thus, faculty and students are using IPE as an innovative approach to develop critical work skills among the future generations of food service and public health workers. References: Brown, A. (2019). Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. (2017). ServSafe Coursebook (7th ed.). Chicago, IL: National Restaurant Association. Riegelman, R., & Kirkwood, B. (2014). Public Health 101: Healthy People-Healthy Populations (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 
    • Structuring Course Delivery Upon Student Evaluation Criteria

      Holt, Emily; Holt, Emily
      Topic: Student perceptions of teaching and evaluation may differ from those of the faculty member teaching the course.  Without dialogue between the students and faculty members, perceptions of effective and ineffective teaching may be unaddressed. This may impair successful outcomes in the course. Context: Dental hygiene students enter the program as a cohort and take the same courses together for 4 semesters.  Since the cohort remains the same for the 23 courses taken while in the Dental Hygiene Program, faculty members can implement similar approaches to teaching and evaluation throughout the 2 years to address student perceptions of effective teaching and evaluation methods. Approach: Before the class session, a framework is created in Microsoft Word which the faculty member uses during the class session to type student feedback while the document is pulled up on the projector.  Fifty minutes is dedicated to open conversation with students to understand what they consider effective and ineffective methods to address five of the ten statements found on the University sponsored course evaluation.  The statements include: The course materials used, such as visuals, texts, handouts, and online items, helped me to learn. The assignments helped me increase my understanding of the course content. The instructor clearly communicated the subject matter. The instructor's teaching style was effective for me. The instructor evaluated me fairly. Following the class session, the faculty member reviews the feedback to determine if she already implements the suggestion, already prevents the problem described, will sometimes implement the suggestion, will work on implementing the suggestion more often, or is unable to implement the suggestion.  A symbol key representing each of the five actions is placed next to each item on the framework sheet.  The document is emailed to students so they know how the faculty member will incorporate their suggestions.  Ten to 15 minutes is spent at the beginning of the next class session to answer questions students have about the results. Reflection: Students tell me they feel like I listen to them and meet their needs.  I better understand what it means to a student to teach and evaluate effectively.  Ultimately, student evaluations of teaching have improved as a result of addressing their preferences in teaching and evaluation.  
    • Student Perceptions of a Low-Tech Option for Engagement and Assessment

      Schmuck, Heather; Cook, Joy; Schmuck, Heather; Cook, Joy
      The focus for the IRB approved study was to explore whether utilizing a simple ‘low-tech’, inexpensive option in the classroom provided higher perception levels of engagement and assessment (average rating of agree or strongly agree) from both the student and faculty perspective. The research question for this study was ‘What are students’ perceptions regarding the use of dry erase whiteboards in the classroom as it relates to engagement, formative assessment and learning?’. There is ample literature supporting the use of high-tech ‘clickers’ or student owned technology to increase student engagement. Oftentimes, these high-tech options require increased cost burden on the student. Low-tech options can be relatively inexpensive and potentially create a similar engaged environment demonstrated in literature without additional financial burden. Small dry erase whiteboards were used by students in multiple imaging science classrooms to answer course review material during lecture delivery. Two cohorts of students utilizing this method were surveyed over assessment, engagement, and learning with Likert scaled items and open-ended questions. The researchers learned that this low-cost, low-tech method of student assessment was well received by students who were in overall agreement with every surveyed item. Faculty perceptions for the study included positive results including active engagement from all rather than a few students. Statistical analysis demonstrated a strong correlation between two survey items related to student assessment indicating that students perceived a positive benefit from the use of this teaching pedagogy related to self-reflection. A suggestion for future research would include measurement of actual student learning outcomes when employing this pedagogical practice rather than just perceived learning and a comparative analysis between this option and other ‘high-tech’, more expensive options.
    • Students Enhancing Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) Through Service Learning

      Ramos, Elizabeth; Connerton, Charlotte
      Topic/Problem Statement: Service learning is meaningful community service with instruction and structured reflection to enrich the learning experience and teach civic responsibility. Through service learning, the NUTR 383 students enhanced the HEAL curriculum and met course learning outcomes by applying and sharing food and nutrition principles that promote and encourage simple food and nutrient choices among the HEAL participants. The students reflected on their learning to connect theory to practice while the HEAL participants expressed reciprocal benefits to help enhance their healthy food choices.  Context: Nutrition 383 Practical Applications and Evaluation of Food Preparation and Nutrition is a required spring practical food science offering for Nutrition and Wellness and Foodservice Management majors. The HEAL (Healthy Eating and Active Living) program is a grant funded endeavor that promotes healthy lifestyle changes in a church group, specifically All Saints Catholic Parish in Evansville. Students in NUTR 383 and participants in the HEAL program connected in this innovative learning process by constructing, discussing, sharing, and using these materials to make simple healthy food choices. Approach: Students worked individually on each assigned application after laboratory instruction. Through the applications, students creatively developed printed materials in four application / assignment sets. These sets included weekly dinner and snack menus, Dietary Guidelines and recommendations, suggestions for low cost foods, Nutrition Facts panel interpretation with focus on health claims, and nutrient connections to color choices of fruits and vegetables. The students also submitted recipes, which were assembled into a cookbook for individuals / families and quantity food service management. Each student created two recipes: One with enhanced vegetables (hiding a vegetable within another vegetable) and another with replacement of salt with flavor, herbs, and spices for a bean (legume) soup.  This recipe allowed students to show how to promote health and reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, cancer, and dental caries. Reflection/Discussion: Both the nutrition students and the HEAL participants benefited from the service learning application and the project cookbook. Students were able to plan menus, create recipes, and provide nutritional values for educational materials for the HEAL participants. Through reflection the students stated, “I enjoy and value the engaging hands on experience application that broaden my learning capabilities; and "I feel like it was a review of previous things that have been taught in other classes which is nice." The HEAL participants were very appreciative to receive the supplemental information. References: Brinkman, P. & Syracuse, C. (n.d.). Modifying a recipe to be healthier. The Ohio State Extension Family and Consumer Science Bulletin HYG-5543-06. Evers, W., & Mason, A. (2001). Altering recipes for better health. Purdue Extension Consumer and Family Sciences Bulletin CFS-157-W. McGee, H. (2004). On food and cooking. New York, NY: Scribner. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2018). 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (8th ed.). Retrieved from https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf 
    • Survey of Dental Hygiene and Occupational Therapy Students' Perceptions of Team Behaviors and Client Satisfaction during an Interprofessional Education Event

      Coan, Lorinda; Arvin, Mary Kay; Reynolds, Erin
      Oral hygiene is an aspect of daily self-care that has a significant connection to overall health. There is a direct connection between the condition of the mouth, the condition of other systems in the body, and the transmission of infection throughout the body (Azarpazhooh & Leake, 2006; Li, Kolltveit, Tronstad, & Olsen, 2000; Sloane et al., 2013; Stein & Henry, 2009). Daily oral hygiene to maintain oral health has direct benefits for older adults (Bissett & Preshaw, 2011; U.S. Department of Health, 2011). In contrast, a poor oral hygiene regimen is associated with serious risks to overall health, especially in older adults who have been already diagnosed with certain medical conditions and are at risk for health complications (Azarpazhooh & Leake 2006; Li et al., 2000; Salamone, 2013; Stein & Henry, 2009). As patients age and experience a declining health status that leads them into long term care (LTC), oral hygiene tends to receive less attention than other activities of daily living (ADL) (McNally et al., 2012). Occupational therapy (OT) practitioners and dental hygienists (DH) share similar goals in the effort to improve oral healthcare in all populations. Shared assessments include both cognitive and physiological performance skills. Through a collaborative service learning activity, OT and DH students demonstrated interprofessional skills while performing oral and upper body screening of adult clients from the. Survey results indicate positive student perceptions of team planning, as well as high patient (adult volunteer) satisfaction in the care provided.
    • The impact of class delivery mode on student-faculty interaction and mastery goal orientation

      Celuch, Kevin; Milewicz, Chad; Saxby, Carl
      Topic/Problem statement:  A host of literature points to the significance of active/collaborative learning as a means of enhancing student engagement and subsequent learning.  Recently, questions have been raised as to the efficacy of the approach for different learning contexts (face-to-face versus online).  The present research explores the following question: how does class delivery mode influence the efficacy of active/collaborative learning?  Specifically, we examine perceived differences across delivery modes as well as if the effect of class delivery mode works through (is mediated by) perceived student-faculty interaction to influence student mastery goal orientation. Context:  Students completed a questionnaire related to their perceptions of the classes and their learning at the end of four classes: two sections of a marketing principles introductory class (one face-to-face and one online) taught by the same instructor using the same class assignments; and two sections of a marketing management capstone class (one face-to-face and one online) taught by the same instructor using the same class assignments. Approach:  Note that we controlled for instructor, assignments, and level of classes.  The literature often critiques comparisons of face-to-face versus online class formats for a failure to control such factors.   This research also measures important student process perceptions identified in the teaching and learning literature which have been tied to the effectiveness of active/collaborative approaches.  These included: perceived student-faculty interaction which assesses instructor provision of feedback and facilitation of discussion (adopted from Carini, Kuh, and Klein 2006); mastery goal orientation which assesses the extent of emphasis on understanding rather than memorizing content, enjoyment of learning, and performance improvement (adapted from Anderman and Midgley 2002; Church, Elliot, and Gable 2001); and perceived student engagement which assesses student perceptions of the class learning environment (adopted from Church, Elliot, and Gable 2001).  Reflection/Discussion:  Significant differences between the face-to-face and online delivery mode were observed with face-to-face classes having stronger perceived student-faculty interaction and mastery goal orientation than online formats.  Interestingly, both delivery modes were equally engaging.  Further, class delivery mode (face-to-face versus online) was a significant predictor of perceived student-faculty interaction.  Lastly, delivery mode was found to work through student-faculty interaction to influence student mastery goal orientation.  These findings hold implications for adapting and strengthening active/collaborative learning to online delivery.  Specifically, there is a need to explore at a more nuanced level how the perception of student-faculty interaction can be enhanced for online delivery to positively influence student mastery goal orientation which has been tied to deeper, longer lasting learning.  References Anderman, E.M. and Midgley, C. (2002), “Methods for studing goals, goal structures, and patterns of adaptive learning”, in Goals, Goal Structures, and Patterns of Adaptive Learning, ed. C. Midgley, pp. 1-53.Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ. Carini, R.M., Kuh, G.D. and Klein, S.P. (2006), “Student engagement and student learning: Testing the linkages”, Research in Higher Education, Vol. 47 No. 1, 1-32. Church, M.A., Elliot, A.J. and Gable, S.L. (2001), “Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes”, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.93 No. 1, 43-54.
    • Training improves student performance and perceptions in small group learning

      Hopper, Mari K.; Gidley, Patrick; Mann, Daniel; Weinzapfel, Jacob
      Fifty percent of course contact time in the “renewed” curriculum at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) was dedicated to non-didactic, small-group learning. End of course evaluations indicated that students did not understand or value the approach, perhaps due to lack of training in this methodology. Our aim was to determine if engaging students in training designed to enhance small group dynamics and explain outcomes of this approach would result in improved small group performance and enhanced perceptions. Following IRB approval, small-group case-based sessions were audiotaped on two occasions prior to training (Pre), and two additional sessions following training (Post). Recordings were evaluated and scored by trained evaluators using a rubric including the following categories: Participation, Shared Roles, Focus on Learning Objectives, Approach, Independent Thinking and Interpersonal Interaction. Scores for each category were averaged across the three evaluators both Pre and Post. Additionally, to assess student perceptions, a 15-question survey was administered at three time periods: 1) before any small group sessions or training; 2) after recording two small group sessions and directly prior to training; and 3) following training and after recording two additional sessions. Survey questions included topics such as personal preparation, interpersonal interactions, prior undergraduate experience, and perceptions of small group as an effective learning strategy. Question responses were based on a Likert scale of one through seven. Although work is ongoing, preliminary data analysis using paired T-tests indicate that participation scores increased following training, with members participating more equally and encouraging input from each other more frequently. There was little change in rubric scores for other criteria including ability to share roles and addressing learning objectives. Survey responses reveal that students enjoy small group sessions more, contribute more equally, and have fewer tangential discussions in comparison to the pre-training survey responses. These data suggest that students participating in small group learning sessions benefit from training in this approach, and such training will enhance student perceptions regarding effectiveness of this learning strategy.
    • Understanding Retention Pathways and Bottlenecks of STEM Majors: Implications for Student Success

      Elliot, William S.; Deligkaris, Christos; Greenwood, Eric S.; Gentle, Adrian P.; Chan Hilton, Amy B.; Blunt, Shelly B.
      The goals of this project are to increase faculty member's knowledge about evidence-based student retention, instructional best practices, and understanding bottlenecks and other factors impeding student progress in STEM at University of Southern Indiana (USI). In particular, hands-on experiences through group work and engaging students with early undergraduate research contribute significantly to student learning. To accomplish these goals, a working group consisting of faculty members from across the Pott College of Science, Engineering, and Education initiated discussions in Fall 2017 to examine retention factors and bottlenecks. In order to support these activities, the working group secured an Innovation Grant through the Pott College with the goal of developing individualized projects focusing on increasing retention of STEM majors and improving student learning. To assist with our shared efforts, reference materials are made available through SharePoint, Trello is used to document developing hypotheses and activities of the working group, and in-person meetings are held at least once a month to discuss the readings and to share updates on individualized projects. Initially, a systems map was created by the working group to analyze retention pathways of STEM majors at USI. Systems thinking is an effective way to understand the complexity of a topic, identify links among themes, and discover potential individualized research directions. Each working group member then created their own systems map to better constrain their specific area of interest. Research projects that originated from this process include: (1) comparing student attitudes towards group work implementations in introductory Physics courses; (2) evaluating the effectiveness of Pre-Calculus as a preparation for college-level Calculus; (3) exploring the impact of course repeats on student success in the Pott College; (4) increasing retention rates of STEM majors through an early undergraduate research program; and (5) using a faculty learning community and systems mapping to engage faculty members with pedagogical research. Selected student learning outcomes of these projects include: (1) improved comprehension and problem solving skills through group work and active learning, and (2) enriched student engagement through early undergraduate research. Furthermore, faculty members supported one another through the process of Institutional Research Board (IRB) training, the IRB approval process, and securing student data from the Office of Planning, Research, and Assessment. The results from this project will support longer-term retention initiatives and inform strategies to improve student success and retention of STEM majors in the Pott College at USI. In addition, these projects will better position the Pott College to seek external funding (such as National Science Foundation S-STEM program or Howard Hughes Medical Institute Inclusive Excellence program) to support student retention efforts. Finally, classroom strategies that result in improved student learning will be expanded to other sections of introductory courses in mathematics and physics.