• The impact of class delivery mode on student-faculty interaction and mastery goal orientation

      Celuch, Kevin; Milewicz, Chad; Saxby, Carl
      Topic/Problem statement:  A host of literature points to the significance of active/collaborative learning as a means of enhancing student engagement and subsequent learning.  Recently, questions have been raised as to the efficacy of the approach for different learning contexts (face-to-face versus online).  The present research explores the following question: how does class delivery mode influence the efficacy of active/collaborative learning?  Specifically, we examine perceived differences across delivery modes as well as if the effect of class delivery mode works through (is mediated by) perceived student-faculty interaction to influence student mastery goal orientation. Context:  Students completed a questionnaire related to their perceptions of the classes and their learning at the end of four classes: two sections of a marketing principles introductory class (one face-to-face and one online) taught by the same instructor using the same class assignments; and two sections of a marketing management capstone class (one face-to-face and one online) taught by the same instructor using the same class assignments. Approach:  Note that we controlled for instructor, assignments, and level of classes.  The literature often critiques comparisons of face-to-face versus online class formats for a failure to control such factors.   This research also measures important student process perceptions identified in the teaching and learning literature which have been tied to the effectiveness of active/collaborative approaches.  These included: perceived student-faculty interaction which assesses instructor provision of feedback and facilitation of discussion (adopted from Carini, Kuh, and Klein 2006); mastery goal orientation which assesses the extent of emphasis on understanding rather than memorizing content, enjoyment of learning, and performance improvement (adapted from Anderman and Midgley 2002; Church, Elliot, and Gable 2001); and perceived student engagement which assesses student perceptions of the class learning environment (adopted from Church, Elliot, and Gable 2001).  Reflection/Discussion:  Significant differences between the face-to-face and online delivery mode were observed with face-to-face classes having stronger perceived student-faculty interaction and mastery goal orientation than online formats.  Interestingly, both delivery modes were equally engaging.  Further, class delivery mode (face-to-face versus online) was a significant predictor of perceived student-faculty interaction.  Lastly, delivery mode was found to work through student-faculty interaction to influence student mastery goal orientation.  These findings hold implications for adapting and strengthening active/collaborative learning to online delivery.  Specifically, there is a need to explore at a more nuanced level how the perception of student-faculty interaction can be enhanced for online delivery to positively influence student mastery goal orientation which has been tied to deeper, longer lasting learning.  References Anderman, E.M. and Midgley, C. (2002), “Methods for studing goals, goal structures, and patterns of adaptive learning”, in Goals, Goal Structures, and Patterns of Adaptive Learning, ed. C. Midgley, pp. 1-53.Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ. Carini, R.M., Kuh, G.D. and Klein, S.P. (2006), “Student engagement and student learning: Testing the linkages”, Research in Higher Education, Vol. 47 No. 1, 1-32. Church, M.A., Elliot, A.J. and Gable, S.L. (2001), “Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes”, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.93 No. 1, 43-54.
    • Training improves student performance and perceptions in small group learning

      Hopper, Mari K.; Gidley, Patrick; Mann, Daniel; Weinzapfel, Jacob
      Fifty percent of course contact time in the “renewed” curriculum at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) was dedicated to non-didactic, small-group learning. End of course evaluations indicated that students did not understand or value the approach, perhaps due to lack of training in this methodology. Our aim was to determine if engaging students in training designed to enhance small group dynamics and explain outcomes of this approach would result in improved small group performance and enhanced perceptions. Following IRB approval, small-group case-based sessions were audiotaped on two occasions prior to training (Pre), and two additional sessions following training (Post). Recordings were evaluated and scored by trained evaluators using a rubric including the following categories: Participation, Shared Roles, Focus on Learning Objectives, Approach, Independent Thinking and Interpersonal Interaction. Scores for each category were averaged across the three evaluators both Pre and Post. Additionally, to assess student perceptions, a 15-question survey was administered at three time periods: 1) before any small group sessions or training; 2) after recording two small group sessions and directly prior to training; and 3) following training and after recording two additional sessions. Survey questions included topics such as personal preparation, interpersonal interactions, prior undergraduate experience, and perceptions of small group as an effective learning strategy. Question responses were based on a Likert scale of one through seven. Although work is ongoing, preliminary data analysis using paired T-tests indicate that participation scores increased following training, with members participating more equally and encouraging input from each other more frequently. There was little change in rubric scores for other criteria including ability to share roles and addressing learning objectives. Survey responses reveal that students enjoy small group sessions more, contribute more equally, and have fewer tangential discussions in comparison to the pre-training survey responses. These data suggest that students participating in small group learning sessions benefit from training in this approach, and such training will enhance student perceptions regarding effectiveness of this learning strategy.
    • Understanding Retention Pathways and Bottlenecks of STEM Majors: Implications for Student Success

      Elliot, William S.; Deligkaris, Christos; Greenwood, Eric S.; Gentle, Adrian P.; Chan Hilton, Amy B.; Blunt, Shelly B.
      The goals of this project are to increase faculty member's knowledge about evidence-based student retention, instructional best practices, and understanding bottlenecks and other factors impeding student progress in STEM at University of Southern Indiana (USI). In particular, hands-on experiences through group work and engaging students with early undergraduate research contribute significantly to student learning. To accomplish these goals, a working group consisting of faculty members from across the Pott College of Science, Engineering, and Education initiated discussions in Fall 2017 to examine retention factors and bottlenecks. In order to support these activities, the working group secured an Innovation Grant through the Pott College with the goal of developing individualized projects focusing on increasing retention of STEM majors and improving student learning. To assist with our shared efforts, reference materials are made available through SharePoint, Trello is used to document developing hypotheses and activities of the working group, and in-person meetings are held at least once a month to discuss the readings and to share updates on individualized projects. Initially, a systems map was created by the working group to analyze retention pathways of STEM majors at USI. Systems thinking is an effective way to understand the complexity of a topic, identify links among themes, and discover potential individualized research directions. Each working group member then created their own systems map to better constrain their specific area of interest. Research projects that originated from this process include: (1) comparing student attitudes towards group work implementations in introductory Physics courses; (2) evaluating the effectiveness of Pre-Calculus as a preparation for college-level Calculus; (3) exploring the impact of course repeats on student success in the Pott College; (4) increasing retention rates of STEM majors through an early undergraduate research program; and (5) using a faculty learning community and systems mapping to engage faculty members with pedagogical research. Selected student learning outcomes of these projects include: (1) improved comprehension and problem solving skills through group work and active learning, and (2) enriched student engagement through early undergraduate research. Furthermore, faculty members supported one another through the process of Institutional Research Board (IRB) training, the IRB approval process, and securing student data from the Office of Planning, Research, and Assessment. The results from this project will support longer-term retention initiatives and inform strategies to improve student success and retention of STEM majors in the Pott College at USI. In addition, these projects will better position the Pott College to seek external funding (such as National Science Foundation S-STEM program or Howard Hughes Medical Institute Inclusive Excellence program) to support student retention efforts. Finally, classroom strategies that result in improved student learning will be expanded to other sections of introductory courses in mathematics and physics.
    • USI OT/OTA Toy Accessibility Project

      Mason, Jessica; Dishman, Karen; Arvin, Mary Kay
      Topic/Problem Statement: The role of an occupational therapy professional is to ensure that individuals can participate in daily life activities. Play is the work of children. All children grow and develop from play experiences. For some children with disabilities, participation in play can be limited due to physical and/or cognitive deficits. Children with disabilities can utilize switch-operated toys to more easily engage in play. The occupational therapy (OT) and occupational therapy assistant (OTA) programs decided to work together to modify toys for children with disabilities in our community as a service learning activity. Context: Occupational therapy students and occupational therapy assistant students make up the USI Student Occupational Therapy Association (SOTA). The SOTA program applied and received the USI Endeavor Grant in the fall of 2018. The grant was written by two OT students, one OTA student, and two OT faculty members. The funds from the grant will allow students to learn how to adapt battery operated items using switches. Students will be able to use this skill in future professional occupational therapy practice. Approach: According to Hamm (2005), play experiences provide children with practice for skills that they require in adult life. Children learn from interactions with peers through play. The OT and OTA students received education and training on modifying a battery-operated plush toy into a switch operated toy. The process for adapting the toys was provided by the robotics program at Ivy Tech. This process included learning how a simple electrical circuit works, evaluating the toy, splicing together wires, and connecting the switch to the toy.  Toys were presented to the Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation and Easter Seals Rehabilitation Center during December and January. A total of 50 toys were switch adapted by the OT and OTA students. Reflection/Discussion: After the toy adaptation sessions were completed, OT and OTA students were asked to participate in an IRB approved research study regarding the service learning experience.  Results indicated most students believed this activity helped them make a difference and become more aware of the needs in the community. A majority of the OT and OTA students also reported this activity reinforced problem-solving skills and critical thinking.  The OT and OTA students will present the outcomes of the project at the USI Endeavor Symposium in April 2019. References: Hamm, E. M., Mistrett, S. G., & Ruffino, A.G. (2005). Play outcomes and satisfaction with toys and technology of young children with special needs. Journal of Special Education Technology, 21(1), 29-35. Doi:10.1177/016264340602100103 
    • Using a Mix of Strategies to Prepare Nursing Students for Disaster Response

      Connerton, Charlotte; St. Clair, Julie
      Undergraduate nursing faculty are expected to prepare students to participate as members and leaders of interprofessional teams that provide emergency services in their communities.  The BSN Essentials indicate that the baccalaureate nursing program must prepare graduates to “use clinical judgment and decision-making skills in appropriate, timely nursing care during disaster, mass casualty, and other emergency situations” (The American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2008, p. 25).  Context: Nursing 455:  Population-Focused Nursing Practice is taken Fall semester of the senior year. The course promotes development of disaster preparedness competencies through seminar, online clinical modules and simulation. Students are expected to apply principles of SALT triage, plan and set up a shelter, conduct a shelter guest intake and health needs assessment, and use the medical evacuation sled in a seminar setting on campus. Approach: The disaster preparedness clinical education includes seminar, independent online learning and simulation.  The clinical activities include the following: Completion of the SALT Triage and the FEMA IS-100 course independently online prior to the seminar day. Completion of “Stop the Bleed” which includes skills demonstration of wound packing and tourniquet application. Demonstration of evacuation of a victim down a staircase using a Med Sled. Tour of the Physical Activities Center (a Red Cross designated shelter) and development of a shelter set up plans. Use of case studies with Red Cross shelter forms. Demonstration of triage competency using patient triage training cards. Reflection/Discussion: A mix of educational strategies was used to prepare senior level nursing students for response during a disaster.  Students demonstrated the ability to apply the principles of SALT triage, plan and set up a shelter, conduct a shelter guest intake and health needs assessments, and use the medical evacuation sled. Students were actively engaged, and learning occurred through the simulation. References: American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2008). The essentials of baccalaureate education for professional nursing practice. Retrieved from http://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/Publications/BaccEssentials08.pdf American College of Surgeons (2015-2016). Stop the bleed. Retrieved from http://www.bleedingcontrol.org/ Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2018). IS-100.C: Introduction to the incident command system, ICS 100. Retrieved from https://training.fema.gov/is/courseoverview.aspx?code=IS-100.c MESH Coalition (n.d.). Adult patient triage cards. Retrieved from http://www.meshcoalition.org/products/patient-triagecards National Disaster Life Support Foundation (2015). SALT mass casualty triage on-line training. Retrieved from http://register2.ndlsf.org/mod/page/view.php?id=2056
    • Using World Literature to Build Cultural Awareness and Increase Cognitive Flexibility

      Gupta, Sukanya; Popescu-Sandu, Oana
      Abstract is not included by request of the authors. Please contact the authors for additional information.