• 4th Celebration of Teaching & Learning Symposium Abstract Booklet

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
      The abstract booklet for the 4th Teaching & Learning Symposium, hosted by the University of Southern Indiana Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, February 5, 2020. The Teaching & Learning Symposium focuses on topics related to improving student learning, academic success, and curriculum in higher education.
    • 4th Celebration of Teaching & Learning Symposium Program

      Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning
    • A Process for RN-BSN Program Evaluation

      Connerton, Charlotte; Doerner, Mary
      Topic/Problem Statement Evaluation of a programs outcomes is necessary to support a programs curriculum. Nursing programs are accredited by various bodies, yet each accrediting body expects the nursing program to evaluate itself to ensure the students are meeting the program outcomes. The purpose of this project is to develop the process for Registered Nurses Baccalaureate of Science in Nursing (RN-BSN) program assessment through mapping of key assignments to program outcomes and assessment rubrics development to demonstrate student achievement of program outcomes. Faculty use of assessment rubrics will determine student learning and achievement of program outcomes. Context The University of Southern Indiana on-line RN-BSN program has six program outcomes. While regulatory bodies look at prelicensure programs and NCLEX pass rates, it is also essential to evaluate the effectiveness of RN-BSN programs. There was no clear data to demonstrate achieve of program outcomes. Licensed RNs are required to complete nine nursing courses. Specific courses assignments were identified with key evidence to demonstrate the students achievement of program outcomes. Grounding A search of literature using three online databases revealed limited published research related to nursing program evaluation. Literature reviews reveal much of the published evaluation research focuses on evaluation of individual courses or instructional methods rather than systematic program evaluation (Horne & Sandmann, 2012; Russell, 2015). Research related to use of rubrics in program evaluation focused on interrater reliability for grading individual student written assignments (Kilanowski & Bowers, 2017), mapping competencies to course assignments (Laux & Stoten, 2016). The lack of overall program evaluation research supports the need for study and development of effective processes for documentation of outcomes and program evaluation. Approach The project was submitted for Institutional Review Board for approval. The project was identified as a quality improvement project. Two workshops were conducted in May 2019. Day 1 was to examine the courses for key assignments and identify evidence that would demonstrate achievement of program outcomes. Day 2 was the development of the assessment rubrics with the assistance of an Assessment Consultant. Assessment rubrics were piloted in six classes in Summer 2019. Face validity of assessment rubrics were determined by two faculty not participating in the workshop. Assessment rubrics were revised based on the comments from the faculty reviewers and will be piloted in additional courses. Reflection/Discussion/Lessons Learned The piloting of the rubrics by faculty identified concerns with the provision of evidence needed to demonstrate achievement of program outcomes. The face validity reviewers provided vital feedback and suggestion on how to modify the assessment rubric ensure the measurement of identified outcomes. Assessment rubrics were revised based on feedback from the faculty participating in the pilot and face validity reviewers. Face validity review and discussion provided clarity on how the assessment rubrics needed to be modified to demonstrate the evidence of students achieving program outcomes. This was a collaborative effort between the faculty of the RN-BSN program. The face validity reviewers taught outside of the RN-BSN program. Measurement of student learning and achievement of program outcomes will begin Summer 2020. References Horne, E. M. & Sandmann, L. R. (2012). Current trends in systematic program evaluation of online graduate nursing education: An integrative literature review. Journal of Nursing Education, 51, 570-578. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20120820-06 Kilanowski, J. F. & Abbott, M. B. (2017). Investigating interrater reliability in an online RN-to-BSN program: Disparate conclusions. Journal of Nursing Education, 56, 360-363. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20170518-08 Laux, M. & Stoten, S. (2016). A statewide RN-BSN consortium use of the electronic portfolio to demonstrate student competency. Nurse Educator, 41, 275-277. https://doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000277 Russell, B. H. (2015). The who, what, and how of evaluation within online nursing education: State of the science. Journal of Nursing Education, 54, 13-21+sup. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20141228-02
    • Be Good to You!

      Gruenewald, Steve
      A survey by the American College Health Association indicated that three out of five students experienced overwhelming anxiety, and two out of five students were too depressed to function (Roy, 2018). There has been a significant increase in the number of students being referred to a mental health provider after showing signs of distress in their daily interactions at school, etc. Living Works has gatekeeper training for individuals called the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills (ASIST) program. Living Works estimates that ASIST has prevented over 300,00 suicide attempts (Living Works, 2020). Part of the ASIST program encourages the development of regular self-care activities. The Be Good to You! activity was developed and implemented to provide students a self-care activity. Many students are simply in need of a healthy release for the stressor that is affecting them. The activity has been used for over three years with positive feedback from both undergraduate and graduate students. The activity is presented as a regular course assignment given to all students, regardless of the course delivery platform. The activity is introduced the first day of the semester and the students have until the week before finals week to complete the activity. Be Good to You! has two parts. The first part is to get instructor approval for the activity and then post proof that the activity was completed. This proof is usually a selfie photo of the student engaged in the activity. Students have engaged in getting a massage, mani-pedi, attending sporting events, playing with animals at the local humane society, hiking, surfing, running in a marathon, Christmas caroling, going to the zoo with their nieces and nephews, getting a deluxe facial treatment, clothes shopping, and many other activities. Students have given positive comments on the activity in the course evaluations. One student commented that this assignment should be part of every college course because the assignment required them to focus on themselves and relax doing something that brings them joy. Another student wrote that this assignment has proven that stepping back from the stress of school gave a renewed energy for studying and will be something they do regularly in the future. Several students commented that this one assignment helped them to stay present and better manage the imposed requirements of their classes and life experiences. In-class feedback from students has been positive and several students felt that this activity had a positive impact on their feelings about school. Providing this activity as part of the course sends a message that taking time for yourself and destressing can bring the student's perceptions and life more into balance. References Living Works. (2020, January 13). Living Works. Retrieved from Living Works Corporation Web site: https://www.livingworks.net/history Roy, N. (2018, December 17). Higher Education Today. Retrieved from higheredtoday.org: https://www.higheredtoday.org/2018/12/17/rise-mental-health-college-campuses-protecting-emotional-health-nations-college-students/
    • Continuous Improvement in Teaching Strategies through Lean Principles

      Ely, Susan
      Faculty attempt to accommodate numerous learning styles to aid individual students in their comprehension and retention of course content, however, formal feedback from students is rarely gathered in a timely fashion. Most formal student course evaluations are conducted at the end of the semester, with survey results available to faculty after the semester has ended. While feedback from these surveys can be integrated into future offerings of the course, this type of survey prohibits adjustments during the semester, which could enhance learner outcomes. Lean manufacturing principles are used in a wide variety of professional sectors to create opportunities for continuous improvement by embedding systems for regular feedback and executing improvements. The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle is a lean manufacturing technique providing a framework for continuous feedback and analysis of a system paired with a mechanism for implementing changes and monitoring their success. The cyclical nature of the system accommodates reflection of the changes and the potential adjustments. This system aligns well with reflective teaching strategies, as it integrates ongoing student feedback, analysis of the data, reflection of classroom practices based on student perceptions, and timely adjustments to course delivery techniques to aid students in their learning. To test the effectiveness of this lean technique in a classroom, the researcher followed the PDCA cycle using GoogleForms and Blackboard as a method for collecting feedback from the students, multiple times throughout the semester. For this experiment, the course was divided into three modules, aligned with the administration of the three non-cumulative exams of the semester. At the completion of each module, a GoogleForms was made available to students via Blackboard. Participation was optional and anonymous, and the directions stated the purpose of the survey and the use of the data. The GoogleForms included questions using a Likert-format response to indicate their perceived effectiveness of teaching strategies and key learning objectives of the course, as well as an open response for any additional feedback. Once data was gathered, the researcher reviewed the data and reflected, with particular focus on how the course format and delivery could be adjusted to better meet student needs. Based on the results from Fall 2019, the PDCA cycle proved to be an effective tool for gathering meaningful feedback from students during the semester, while allowing for adjustments to be made in a way that increased students perceived effectiveness of teaching methodologies. Over the semester, the researcher made systematic changes to content delivery based on feedback received from the GoogleForms. The data from the surveys showed a statistically significant increase of student perceived effectiveness in teaching strategies, as well as an increase in perceived knowledge for key content areas. As such, the PDCA cycle was a valuable framework for facilitating continuous feedback, improvement and a measurable increase in student learning. The researcher also noted that students voiced their appreciation of the instructor being willing to make mid-semester adjustments to content delivery, based on their feedback. Students commented that the changes made significantly improved their understanding and retention of course materials. At this time, the researcher plans to expand the use of the PDCA cycle for continuous improvement in other courses and continue to evaluate the effectiveness of this tool in quantifying learner preferences and learning outcomes throughout the semester. References: Balzer, W., Francis, D.E., Krehbiel, T., & Shea, N. (2016). A review and perspective on Lean in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 24 (4), 442-462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/QAE-03-2015-0011 Doman, M. (2011). A new lean paradigm in higher education: a case study. Quality Assurance in Education, 19 (3), 248-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/096848811111158054 Lu, J. & Laux, C. (2017). Lean Six Sigma leadership in higher education institutions. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 66 (5), 638-650. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-09-2016-0195 Stupnisky, R., Hall, N.C., Daniels, L.M., & Mensah, E. (2017). Testing a model of pretenure faculty members teaching and research success: Motivation as a mediator of balance, expectations and collegiality. The Journal of Higher Education, 88 (3), 376-400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00221546.2016.1272317
    • Designing and delivering an effective online group social work skills course

      Dillingham, Jara
      Topic/Problem statement: Social work is a profession of interpersonal communication. This aligned well with the traditional face-to-face classroom, however, has presented some challenges when considering meeting student needs through online education. As technology has evolved, there is greater opportunity to utilize technology to improve communication and connection with students, thus opportunity to develop and assess interpersonal skills and skill development. Designing and delivering an effective skills-based course in a fully online format was the goal for this course development. Context: The course referenced in this poster presentation was developed as part of the required course curriculum for undergraduate social work students. The purpose of this course is to train student social workers in group methods that will be utilized in generalist social work practice situations. Through participation in an online course development program, one of the four sections of the course was developed to be delivered in a fully online format using both synchronous and asynchronous components. Grounding: A review of social work literature by Madoc-Jones and Parrott (2005) shows online education is just as effective as traditional face-to-face. However, there are some social work faculty and programs who remain skeptical of the ability to teach and assess students, specifically the skills-based courses, in an online format (Groshong et al., 2013; Moore, 2005). As there has been an increase in commuter students (Complete College America, 2011), programs have been required to be creative and develop online pedagogical strategies to offer quality web-based education (Ouellette & Wilkerson, 2013). Approach: Through working with the instructional designers in the university online course development program, this course was strategically designed utilizing the Quality Matters Rubric standards, which examines clarity, organization, and other components specific to quality course design (QM Rubrics & Standards, n.d.). In addition to looking at course design, through IRB approval, an exploratory study was completed to look at student performance in the course, including overall course grades as well as individual assignments in alignment with course learning objectives. The study also utilized anonymous online student surveys to explore student perception of their performance and factors related to course design and delivery that contributed to or hindered success in the course. Reflection/Discussion/Lessons Learned: Results indicate the goals of designing a quality online course that met students needs and allowed opportunity for students to practice and demonstrate competency in group skills necessary for practice were attained. At the beginning of the course, 81% (n=16) of students enrolled indicated the reason for taking the course was flexibility of not having to commute to campus or it fit best in their schedule. Through QM course certification, the goal of designing a quality course was met, however it did not evaluate the outcomes of student learning. Utilizing an 80% benchmark for determination of student competency, 92% of students met the benchmark with their overall course grade. Of the students (n=8) who completed the post-course survey, 100% indicated they were able to learn effective group skills and felt all course learning objectives were met. As this was an exploratory study, there are areas in which further exploration are necessary, including comparison against the traditional face-to-face sections. References: Complete College America. (2011). Time is the enemy: The surprising truth about why today's college students aren't graduating and what needs to change. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED536827.pdf Groshong, L., McKenna, R., Hest, K., Hadley, S., Freeman, J., Stephenson, D. (2013). Report on online MSW programs. Retrieved from https://www.clinicalsocialworkassociation.org/Resources/Documents/CSWA%20-%20Position%20Paper%20-%20Online%20MSW%20Programs%20-%20September2013.pdf Madoc Jones, I. & Parrott, L. (2005). Virtual Social Work Education Theory and Experience. Social Work Education, 24:7, 755-768. Doi: 10.1080/02615470500238678 Moore, B. (2005). Faculty perceptions of the effectiveness of web-based instruction in social work education: A national study. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 23(1/2), 53-66. Doi: 10.1300/J017v23n010_04 Ouellette, P. M., & Wilkerson, D. (2013). Social work education: Electronic technologies. In T. Mizrahi & L. Davis (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social work (20th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. QM Rubrics & Standards. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.qualitymatters.org/qa-resources/rubric-standards
    • Does Precalculus Hurt More Than It Helps?

      Gentle, Adrian P.; Wilding, William
      Precalculus is intended as a rigorous preparation for calculus, developing students abstract reasoning skills, algebraic thinking, and deepening their understanding of a variety of mathematical functions. We ask whether USIs precalculus courses are achieving these goals. In a recent national study, Bressoud (2014) found that success rates in precalculus are relatively low, while only 50-60% of those who succeed in precalculus actually continue to calculus. For the students who do make it to calculus, there is evidence that precalculus does little to increase their chances of success, and the additional semester may actively discourage some students, especially those from underrepresented groups (Sonnert and Sadler, 2014). In light of these studies, we investigate the effects of precalculus at USI on students attitudes towards mathematics, and their subsequent performance in Calculus I. We present preliminary data on student attitudes gathered over several semesters in USIs three credit-hour precalculus course. While we observe a negative impact on attitudes towards mathematics, these changes are not out of line with previous studies (Sonnert 2015). Using a decade of data on student grades in USIs Calculus I course, we match students by SAT score and then compare success rates in Calculus I for the cohort who took precalculus at USI with the cohort who proceeded directly to calculus. Our initial analysis suggests that a semester of precalculus doesn't improve success rates in calculus. We will discuss ways in which this initial analysis can be improved using high school GPA, together with other data. References: Bressoud, D (2014). Attracting and Retaining Students to Complete Two- and Four-Year Undergraduate Degrees in STEM: The Role of Undergraduate Mathematics Education. National Academy of Sciences; Washington, DC: 2014. (Commissioned for the Committee on Barriers and Opportunities in Completing 2-Year and 4-Year STEM Degrees). Sonnert, G. (2015) The Impact of Instructor and Institutional Factors on Students Attitudes, in Insights and Recommendations from the MAA National Study of College Calculus, Bressoud D., Mesa V., Rasmussen, C. (Eds.), MAA Press. Sonnert, G. and Sadler, P. M. (2014). The Impact of Taking a College Pre-Calculus Course on Students' College Calculus Performance, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, v45 n8 p1188-1207.
    • Don't Just Sit There: Student Engagement and Undergraduate Research

      Blair, Greg
      This presentation will focus on two interrelated questions encountered while teaching university art lecture and art studio courses. The first of these is how to increase the engagement of students with course content. The second is how to encourage undergraduate students to start developing their own research. This discussion will review how engagement and research can be inspired, in both art lecture and art studio style courses, as well as for introductory or advanced art students. The strategies presented in this discussion have mainly been developed from self-reflection, self-assessment, and student feedback but also draw upon some of the literature on student engagement and active learning. These strategies can be described as participatory, experiential, and student-centered because they shift the student experience into a more responsive and responsible role. This shift is similar to what David Lapotto has described as gains in individual development, including the growth of self-confidence, independence of work and thought, and a sense of accomplishment. Within the context of the education of an artist this effect can lead to the further development of their individual voice, vision, and artistic practice. One of the main strategies that I have employed to increase student engagement in art lectures courses is experiential learning or situated cognition. Some examples include getting students outside of the classroom so that they can physically perform for themselves some of the difference artworks and theories that we have studied. Another example includes field trips, maybe right on campus, in which students experience firsthand some of the concepts and artistic principles that we have recently discussed in class. In terms of promoting undergraduate research in art studio courses, for introductory courses, I introduce students to different methods of doing artistic research such as data mining. This serves to expand their understanding of the possibilities for developing their own artistic practice. For more advanced students, I encourage doing research by asking the students to develop self-directed projects with a focus on certain methodologies. As the students shift toward solely working on their own research interests, they begin to feel more ownership for what they are doing. Through this sense of ownership, their engagement begins to increase. These implemented strategies have impacted student experience and success through both anecdotal evidence and demonstrable outcomes. These include less absenteeism, better test scores, better conceptual development, and higher levels of retention. Passion and enthusiasm are certainly helpful in increasing engagement but by experimenting with some of the strategies that I have used in my own courses such as the flipped classroom, art making as a social activity, situated cognition, and educational constructivism, perhaps other faculty will also experience a positive impact on their pedagogical development and the success of their students. References Bonwell,, Charles C. and James A. Eison, Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. 1991 ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports, ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, The George Washington University, 1991, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED336049.pdf Hall, Joshua, 3 Ways to Encourage Independent Undergraduate Research, Institute for Humane Studies at George Mason University, September 19, 2016, https://theihs.org/blog/3-waysencourage-independent-undergraduate-research/ Himmelsbach, Vawn, 19 Student Engagement Strategies to Start with in Your Course, Top Hat, May 17, 2019 Khoo, Shaun, How to make undergraduate research worthwhile, Nature, Career Column 14, November 2018, https://www.nature.com/nature/articles?type=career-column Lopatto, David, Undergraduate Research as a High-Impact Student Experience, Association of American Colleges & Universities, peerReview, Spring 2010, Vol. 12, No. 2, https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/undergraduate-research-high-impactstudent-experience
    • Embedding Information Literacy into Course Design with the FrOG

      Neel, Becca; Bernhardt, Laura M.
      According to both Local experience and current literature on the subject one of the instructional obstacles facing academic librarians is the traditional reliance on one-shot library instruction to teach information literacy (IL) skills, which students require time and repeated exposure to master. As such, librarians depend on collaborations with teaching faculty in order to make IL instruction a continuing and essential element of their courses. However, studies suggest teaching faculty often lack either the time or administrative incentives to invest in long-term IL collaborations with librarians. For this reason, librarians need tools for helping non-library faculty to understand how to fully integrate IL competencies into their syllabi and assignments. At the University of Southern Indiana, we have attempted to address these obstacles by developing an interactive, online tool the Framework Objective Generator (FrOG) for learning objective generation and course design brainstorming using the ACRLs Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. The tool is structured around simple questions mapped to more complex threshold concepts in the context of a guide through the beginnings of the backward design process. Though the FrOGs main purpose is to guide users toward measurable, Framework-based learning objectives, we also mapped these objectives to the AAC&U Information Literacy VALUE Rubric outcomes to provide USI faculty with a streamlined assessment experience using campus-recognized terminology and standards. In order to help our users make the most of this tool we have also created a visualization, the Framework Transit Map, to represent the concepts at work and the ways in which they are related to each other; we selected a model the tube map -- that contemporary studies of visualization style and design identify as highly effective for sharing information about complex processes. Instead of viewing individually identified IL skills in isolation or as a static list of practices and concepts, the transit map encourages the user to consider each skill dynamically, in terms of the connections and relations among related concepts and practices. Ideally, the Framework Transit Map serves as an illustrative process guide for considering IL skills as a part of course or assignment creation, designed to be attractive to faculty who would otherwise be reluctant to take on what they might perceive as the extra work of creating and assessing information literacy outcomes above and beyond their disciplinary content. Our ultimate goal is the improvement of IL instruction design for librarians and non-library faculty alike, which we believe will lead to improved student IL outcomes. References Association of American Colleges & Universities (AAC&U). Information Literacy VALUE Rubric, July 31, 2014. https://www.aacu.org/value/rubrics/information-literacy Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL). Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education, February 9, 2015. http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/issues/infolit/framework1.pdf Burkhard, Remo Aslak, and Michael Meier. Tube Map Visualization: Evaluation of a Novel Knowledge Visualization Application for the Transfer of Knowledge in Long-Term Projects. Journal of Universal Computer Science 11, no. 4 (2005): 473-494. https://doi.org/10.3217/jucs-011-04-0473 Cope, Jonathan, and Jess E. Sanabria. Do We Speak the Same Language?: A Study of Faculty Perceptions of Information Literacy. Portal: Libraries and the Academy 14, no. 4 (2014): 475-501. Saunders, Laura. Culture and Collaboration: Fostering Integration of Information Literacy by Speaking the Language of Faculty. In ACRL 2013 Proceedings. Indianapolis, IN: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2013. http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/conferences/confsandpreconfs/2013/papers/Saunders_Culture.pdf Wiggins, Grant, and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design. 2nd ed. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2005. Wilkinson, Lane. Reconsidering Threshold Concepts: A Critical Appraisal of the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy, 2016. https://vimeo.com/167354816. Yakoboski, Paul. Adjunct Faculty: Who They Are and What Is Their Experience? Trends and Issues. TIAA Institute, November 2018. https://www.tiaainstitute.org/index.php/publication/adjunct-faculty-survey-2018
    • Empower your Students through Open Education Practices

      Dobersek, Urska
      Please contact the author for additional information about this presentation.
    • Flipping a Mathematics Classroom: A Budget Lightboard Approach

      Besing, Kyle E.
      There is currently a push for an increase in active learning in post-secondary math and science classes. The benefits of this style are discussed in the Freeman report [4] and advocated for in the recent Joint Statement on Active Learning from the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences [5] One commonly used style of active learning is the flipped classroom, where traditional lecture content is provided to students prior to class to facilitate more active or engaging activities during class meetings [2, 3]. The question of how to create this material served as the focus of this project. The ideal process would produce video content that is both effective for the teaching of mathematics (and ideally other disciplines), but adapted for online use, while not generating significant overhead in terms of time and effort for faculty. These requirements led to the decision to construct a lightboard [1], but within a significantly smaller budget. Currently published lightboard plans cost upwards of $8000 to build. This talk will describe the specifics of this particular build which allowed for a final cost of less than $4000 as well as additional cost saving opportunities for future builds. A majority of the cost savings are due to the adoption of available open-source software. A flipped classroom approach utilizing the lightboard was piloted during the Fall 2019 semester in two sections of a General Education Probability and Statistics class. This class typically includes freshman through senior science majors and non-majors. Students watched a 7-12 minute video prior to class and completed a pre-class quiz. I will discuss the implementation of this approach as well as initial observations and feedback from the pilot semester. In particular, I will highlight the impact the flipped classroom had on students who identify as bad at math or who fear being asked to do math. References [1] J Alex Birdwell and Michael Peshkin. Capturing technical lectures on lightboard. 122nd ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, 26:1, 2015. [2] George R Buch and Carryn B Warren. The flipped classroom: Implementing technology to aid in college mathematics students success. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 10(2):109-116, 2017. [3] Kevin R Clark. The effects of the flipped model of instruction on student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom. Journal of Educators Online, 12(1):91-115, 2015. [4] Scott Freeman, Sarah L Eddy, Miles McDonough, Michelle K Smith, Nnadozie Okoroafor, Hannah Jordt, and Mary Pat Wenderoth. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23):8410-8415, 2014. [5] Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences. Active learning in post-secondary mathematics education. Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences Washington, DC, 2016.
    • Getting Down and Dirty with Lead Apparel

      Schmuck, Heather; Smith, Jeremy; Cook, Joy; Reddington, Amanda
      Topic/Problem statement While it is common practice to utilize lead apparel in the radiologic technology, dental hygiene, or dental assisting professions for acquiring radiographic images, the appropriate care and use of lead apparel may sometimes falter through complacency or lack of knowledge. Complicating this matter is the lack of manufacturers recommended use and care instructions for the lead apparel never making it to the end users. This study sought to examine how much do students truly know about the appropriate care and use of lead apparel. Context This scholarship of teaching and learning project involved three disciplines: dental assisting, dental hygiene, and radiologic technology. Faculty from each course came together to develop an interprofessional learning activity surrounding units of study on radiographic quality control. Part of radiographic quality control involves lead apparel inspection. Additionally, two of the researchers were previously involved in a study on examining bioburden of lead apparel leading to this additional focus in the learning activity. The proposed student outcomes focused on students learning more about bioburden present on lead apparel, appropriate cleaning for lead apparel, and visual, tactile, and radiographic lead integrity inspection. Institutional review board approval was obtained for data collection related to students knowledge about the care and use of lead apparel and radiation knowledge. Grounding Olson and Bialocerkowski (2014) note that little research has been conducted on IPE effectiveness in allied health profession fields and what has been done is limited more to improvement in attitudes toward other professions and teamwork rather than actual changes in learning. Reeves, Goldman, and Oandasan (2007), do establish that prelicensure IPE can play a pivotal role in reducing negative effects of professional socialization, mitigating negative stereotypes of other health care professional groups. Cook, Schmuck, and Hollingsworth (2019) indicate that end users of the lead apparel protective devices may not be made aware of the appropriate care and use instructions for the lead apparel related to integrity inspections and maintaining cleanliness of the apparel. As both the radiology and dental professions utilize lead aprons, it seemed appropriate to bring these groups together to focus on learning knowledge regarding the importance of proper use and care of lead prior to their professional practice. Approach Faculty from the Radiologic Technology, Dental Hygiene, and Dental Assisting programs developed an innovative Interprofessional learning activity focused on students knowledge surrounding the care and use of lead apparel. The care and use of lead apparel is often not a primary focus in professional practice even though all three of the represented professions utilize lead apparel. The activity involved 52 students representing a cohort from each of the respective programs; 19 from radiologic technology, 21 from dental hygiene, and 12 from dental assisting. The activity involved an IRB approved research focus utilizing a pre and post survey tool previously piloted by the researchers. This survey tool measures learning gains through knowledge scale responses on the care and use of lead apparel and student responses on Likert survey items related to radiation knowledge. Students were randomly selected into two different groups who completed a pre-survey then rotated through two activities: a lead apparel hygiene laboratory activity to measure bioburden on lead apparel and a laboratory activity to examine lead integrity. Each group had opportunity to be actively involved in the examination of one piece of lead apparel through both lab activities. Faculty were present in each lab to guide the activity and assist with interpreting the results for each piece of lead apparel. Students then completed a post survey. This study will present the data for learning gains. Reflection/Discussion/Lessons Learned A total of 45 complete surveys were returned. Any surveys with missing data on either the pre or post survey section for knowledge scale responses (n = 7) were excluded from analysis. Results from knowledge scale responses indicated a significant increase (p = <.01) in the mean score between the pre (m = 4.53) and post (m = 5.58) survey responses. Additional analysis determined this increase in the mean score occurred across all three disciplines. Student learning was positively impacted through this activity and addressed an area of knowledge gap that students can carry with them into practice. While dental hygiene, dental assisting, and radiologic technology may be viewed as unlikely partners in an interprofessional activity, finding commonalities among professions to bring together the disciplines into an active learning situation can prove beneficial to increasing students knowledge. References Cook, J. A., Schmuck, H., & Hollingsworth, A. (2019). Care and use of lead apparel. The Dental Assistant, 88(3), 9-11. Retrieved from www.ada.ausa.org Olson, R., & Bialocerkowski, A. (2014). Interprofessional education in allied health: A systematic review. Medical Education, 48(3), 236-246. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12290 Reeves, S., Goldman, J., & Oandasan, I., (2007). Key factors in planning and implementing interprofessional education in health care settings. Journal of Allied Health, 36(4), 231-5. Retrieved from http://www.asahp.org/journal-of-allied-health
    • Hospice: Dying at Home an Undergraduate Nursing Simulation

      Pierce, Amy; Butler, Ryan
      Topic: The Hospice: Dying at Home simulation addressed a gap in undergraduate nursing student education, regarding end-of-life care. During the simulation, nursing students demonstrated novice level skills in caring for clients who were near the end-of-life or actively dying. The simulation promoted the utilization of therapeutic communication and critical thinking skills needed to assess, plan, implement, and evaluate nursing care given to clients and families during the end of life. Context: The simulation was implemented as a final project in a senior nursing course focusing on the care of adults living with chronic illness. Students were required to demonstrate overarching concepts taught throughout the course such as: self-management, uncertainty, spirituality, transitions in care, chronic pain, palliative care, hospice, and death. A checklist of required skills and activities to be utilized was provided for student review and included specific objectives such as performing a head to toe assessment and providing education on the hospice experience. The simulation was held in the Minka, a compact home on the University of Southern Indiana campus, to give students a realistic experience. Grounding: End-of-life simulation addresses a gap in undergraduate nursing education. Time allotted for clinical hours and availability of clinical settings limits nursing students experience of caring for clients and families near the end-of-life (Smith, et al., 2018). The Hospice: Dying at Home simulation gives a large cohort of nursing students the opportunity to care for a client and family near the end-of-life. This simulation provides a basis for how nurses care for and use therapeutic communication. When education on death and dying is minimized in undergraduate nursing programs, nursing students are left unprepared to care for clients and families near the end-of-life (Hjelmfors, Stromberg, Karlsson, Olsson, Jaarsma, 2016). Approach: The simulation took place in two 20-minute parts, first covering admission into home hospice, and subsequently addressing care of the actively dying client. Students were given one week to prepare for the simulation by accessing the academic electronic health record, reading assigned documents, and reviewing the simulation checklist. On the day of the simulation, three students were randomly chosen to participate in each part, assuming the roles of nurse and family members. The remaining students observed the live-streamed simulation from a classroom. The large group met to debrief after each part. In addition to peer and faculty comments, a practicing hospice nurse was on-hand to observe, answer questions, and offer feedback. Discussion: The Hospice: Dying at Home simulation positively impacted student learning by providing a comprehensive end-of-life experience for undergraduate nursing students. Overall, students indicated that the simulation was realistic, the debrief process was engaging, and the educational objectives were met. This simulation could be adapted to a variety of clinical settings including residential and acute care. If live-stream capabilities are not available, the class could be broken down into smaller sections with staggered starts. Caring for clients at the end-of-life is essential; simulation provides an effective method for students to practice this nursing responsibility. References Smith, M.B., Mecieira, T.G.R., Bumbach, M.D., Garbutt, S.J., Citty, S.W., Stephen, A., Keenan, G. (2018). The use of simulation to teach nursing students and clinicians palliative care and end of life communication: A systematic review. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. 35(8), 1140-1154. doi: 10.1177/10499091 Hjelmfors, L., Strombert, A., Karlsson, K., Olsson, L., Jaarsma, L. (2016). Simulation to teach nursing students about end-of-life care. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing. 18(6), 512-518. doi: 10.1097/NJH.00000000000000279
    • Improving Freshman Educational Experience Through Engineering Design Projects

      El Breidi, Farad; Chen, Jotam; Sturgeon, Madelyn
      This work introduces a team-oriented, hands-on engineering project to design a miniature racing car that will compete in a series of challenges. Each team, consisting of three to four members, will be given a battery and a motor by the beginning of the semester, and by the end of the semester, must come up with their own unique design, manufacture their design, present it to the class and engineering faculty and staff, and compete in a series of racing challenges. The miniature racing car project awakes a desire of learning about engineering while acquiring useful skills such as problem solving, machining, time management, leadership, teamwork, etc. In addition, the students learn how to utilize engineering software such as MATLAB, SolidWorks, AutoCAD, and others in a creative manner to benefit in the project. The project is centered on the Conceive, Design, Implement, and Operate (CDIO) process, which is an innovative educational technique based on the principle that product, process, and system development are a key context for an engineering education. This project enhances students learning experience, helps each individual acquire technical and analytical skills, and allows them to experience what it's like to work on an engineering design using the proper software and hardware tools. According to United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, engineers hold approximately 1.7 billon jobs (Torpey, 2018). Therefore, the importance of a well-structured education is extremely important, not only for the university, but for the economy as well. When such a design project was first introduced in engineering education, it seemed to be unattainable and overwhelming for first-year engineering students. First-year engineering students tend to question if they will be able to come up with creative designs and develop innovative devices within a relatively short period of time. Implementing a system engineering and freshman design course in the engineering core that challenges students to build a miniature racing car is beneficial for the students. This project breaks down the CDIO process into an easier understanding concept. Educational benefits that have been discovered are that students realize what they are interested in, discover what their roles are as a part of a team, gain soft and technical skills, and enjoy the project overall. The ultimate goal of the project is to have an operating car that can successfully complete all four races. The effectiveness of the project was quantitatively measured through surveys that exposed the students to different aspects of the course. This showed that although most students thought they did not have the skills to successfully complete the project, at the end, they were able to succeed and learn from the experience. Reference: Torpey, E. (2018, February). Engineers: Employment, pay, and outlook: Career Outlook. Retrieved from www.bls.gov/careeroutlook/2018/article/engineers.htm
    • In the Company of Others: Learning Analytics and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

      Meta Robinson, Jennifer
      Big data is regularly used by higher education institutions to assess student progress toward their degree. However, faculty may not see much of themselves in that statistical picture, often encountering it as a stark numerical value of average time to degree, percentage of students retained, or the like. When faculty members gain access to big data, new possibilities open for framing questions that increase their impact on student success. This arena is new for the scholarship of teaching and learning, proposed as early as 2010 but only recently gaining traction. In this talk, I discuss research by a faculty team that is leveraging large-scale learning analytics to inform disciplinary instruction. Their work reveals opportunities to make major, evidence-based interventions in their courses in ways that respect faculty members disciplinary knowledge, their wisdom of practice, and students experiences. Teaching about 7000 students per year in the general education curriculum, this team from the life sciences, information sciences, social sciences, and humanities shows the value of collaboration to close the gap between teaching and learning to help students succeed.
    • Learning Beyond the Lecture: Engaging Students with Real-time Technology

      Fein, Maya
      How do professors increase student engagement and gain quick feedback on the effectiveness of utilizing course-specific vocabulary? In my Lighting Design course, I've implemented online polling and gamification in a unique way that furthers student engagement and results in students...[having the ability to] develop a more solid, integrated, useful understanding of concepts and their interrelationships and applicability. (Beatty, 2004). I researched and attended conferences about Gamification which aims to effectively utilize game dynamics to increase student motivation and achievement in the classroom (Stott & Neustaedter, 2003). This lead to me creating Descriptionary. It develops students verbal communication skills and enhances their ability to describe and categorize images. Using the website www.PollEverywhere.com, I created several image polls with similar visual qualities. This meant students needed to use more specific language to differentiate between them (Vyduna, Gessler, & Eby, 2007). My goal was to develop students ability to utilize vocabulary and analyze images in a way that provides fun and immediate feedback. Research on in-class polls and voting systems in the classroom provides evidence that these methods promote attention and memory (McGivern & Coxon, 2015). During a heavy vocabulary unit, I start off each class with by playing Descriptionary. The students take turns as the Descriptor, who is secretly assigned an image. They describe the image as the rest of the class is scrolling through the full list of images and trying to guess which one is being narrated. I then show the Descriptor what images the class has selected. This gives immediate feedback about how effective their explanation has been. Then they can revise and expand their language to guide students to the intended image. At the end of each round, we have a short class discussion evaluating what key words the Descriptor used that were most helpful and what additional information could have been provided to aid the class in identifying the image faster. Through my reflection and the positive responses I received from students, this approach helped them playfully master the material. Afterwards, students demonstrated more confidence during class discussions; they also successfully used the vocabulary in other forms of assessment including discussion boards, tests, and essays. I theorize that part of this success stems from taking students through higher levels of cognition as explained in Blooms Taxonomy (Bloom, B. S. 1956). By the end of this activity, students in both roles were able to: 1) Identify vocabulary 2) Describe and analyze images 3) Revise approach 4) Differentiate image characteristics 5) Hypothesize images based on student provided information 6) Appraise effectiveness of chosen terminology I intend to implement and expand this concept into my other courses. This model can easily be applied to other subjects where students benefit from immediate feedback on their ability to analyze images with discipline-specific terminology including all works of art, medical imaging (x-rays, ultrasounds, etc), engineering diagrams, and microscopic pictures. References Beatty, I. (2004). Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communication Systems. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research, 2004(3), 1-13. Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0508129.pdf Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. New York: David McKay. McGivern, P., & Coxon, M. (2015, January 30). Student polling software: where cognitive psychology meets educational practice? Retrieved December 22, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4311550/#__ffn_sectitle . Stott, A., & Neustaedter, C. (2003). Analysis of Gamification in Education. School of Interactive Arts and Technology, Simon Fraser University. Retrieved from http://clab.iat.sfu.ca/pubs/Stott-Gamification.pdf Vyduna, J., Gessler, B., & Eby, S. (2007, April). Poll Everywhere: Live interactive audience participation. Retrieved December 12, 2019, from https://www.polleverywhere.com/ .
    • Let's Get "Down on the Pharm"

      Riedford, Kathy
      Topic/Problem statement Effective communication and collaboration among professional caregivers from various disciplines is a necessary platform in any healthcare setting and it is essential for safe, effective patient care and optimal outcomes. An essential component that introduces risk for safety in all these settings is prescribing, administration, and education for medication management. Greater understanding of these issues among members of the healthcare team can promote greater understanding for patients and lead to improved health and decreased costs. Context The project involves students completing a Master of Social Work degree and nurse practitioner students in three different specialty tracks in the Master of Science in Nursing Program. The goal of the project was to make pharmacy consultations available to all interested students to encourage discussion among disciplines and help them integrate knowledge and experiences they were exposed to in clinical settings. Grounding There is evidence that student reflection and engagement of students in the learning process are important to achieve academic success. It has long been recognized in nursing that reflective practice is inherent to the learning process, but the intentional incorporation of reflection into curriculums has not been consistent. This project incorporated student participation and reflection as part of active learning. Approach Students across disciplines receive communication about general topics for each of the 12 pharmacy consultations for the upcoming semester. Students are encouraged to reflect on the topics and submit reflection questions related to the topics based on gaps in their knowledge and based on patient cases to which they have been exposed. Students working in interprofessional teams are encouraged to work together to reflect on and submit case questions. Students are sent the pharmacy online weblinks a week prior to each consultation and again encouraged to submit relevant questions for the registered pharmacist. Reflection/Discussion/Lessons Learned It was anticipated that interprofessional student teams would work together on difficult patient cases and reflect on gaps in knowledge of pharmacotherapeutics so they could learn from one anothers perspectives to enrich their understanding individually and as a team while benefiting patients in their caseloads. Reflections on various issues in pharmacology based on topics disseminated at the beginning of the semester was open to other students in the courses, but the first order was on those interdisciplinary students working in interprofessional teams in the community. It was a coordinated effort to maintain communication among student groups so they could arrange time for the pharmacy consultations. The most significant barrier was unanticipated issues arising for the pharmacist, which led to occasional rescheduling, making it difficult for students who had arranged their time so they could participate. The other barrier was occasional technological issues that hindered ability to open the online consultations. References Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2016, February). TeamSTEPPS Curriculum Materials. Retrieved from https://www.ahrq.gov/teamstepps/curriculum-materials.html Enuku, C., & Evawoma-Enuku, U. (2015). Importance of reflective practice in nursing education. West African Journal of Nursing, 26, 52-59. Peixoto, N.M., & Peixoto, T.A. (2016). Reflective practice among nursing students in clinical teaching. Revista de Enfermagem Referencia, 4(11), 121-131.
    • Modified Peer-Assisted Learning Opportunities for Undergraduate Students

      Trulen, Justin
      Topic/Problem Statement Studies are regularly published about the importance of active learning. Active learning has been shown to help improve over all grades, reduce the number of DWF, increase students persistence in the STEM fields, as well as many other benefits [6, 7, 9, 10, 5, 11]. However creating such in-class activities required a great deal of time and work. Regardless of ones personal teaching philosophy, creating these active learning activities can pose incredible challenges regardless of the size of institution and resources. Context I reached out to several of our Mathematics and Education double majors, and Education with Mathematics emphasis majors with an opportunity to help me address the above issues. They were asked if they would like to help design collegiate course materials for Kentucky Wesleyan Colleges Mathematics course. The courses range from Foundations of Mathematics to Calculus III. These students select a course they were the most interested in and using examples they began designing their own work. Grounding No studies have been found where others have implemented a similar system on the under- graduate level. However several other studies have been found at the graduate level. These programs were across various disciples implementing peer-assisted learning (PAL), peer teaching (PT) or focused on a formal leadership training as a component in their learning outcomes In [4], they studied the effect when there was a slight shift in focus from strengthening discipline-specific knowledge to understanding effective teaching for a class of future educators. In [12], they designed an elective graduate pharmacy course that was taught by graduate students under the supervision of faculty members. In [3], graduate students developed work- shop sessions for engineering courses. In [8], graduate students developed an upper-level online green chemistry course. In [13], [2], and [1], all also reference the importance and the challenges when implementing such programs in their respected fields. All studies noted positive results with minimal to no negative side-effects. Approach We started out with weekly meeting to allow students time to ask questions and get feedback about design preferences of the questions. Since all active learning activities are built in a program called LATEX they also needed time to learn how to use this program. Initially, they began designing active learning activities that could be grouped into one of two categories but as time went on they began to branch out in to a couple of other types. As activities were finished, they were uses in the classroom if time permitted. Overall positive feedback from students were received in relation to the given active learning activity. Reflection This collaborative work is in the early development. A discussion of future goals are other types of activities to branch into and what to do with such a wide range of activities. Also a discussion of the importance of recruiting more students. We will discuss the importance of creating the opportunities for new ideas to make their way into the courses via these activities. Finally, the goal of using additional technologies, like light board and online grading systems, to further aid in the use of these activities will be outlined. References [1] M.H. Aburahma and H.M. Mohamed, Peer teaching as an educational tool in pharmacy schools; fruitful or futile, Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning 9 (2017), no. 6, 1170-1179, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2017.07.026. [2] J. Elliott-Engel and D. Westfall-Rudd, Preparing future cals professors for improved teaching: A qualitative evaluation of a cohort based program, North American College and Teachers of Agiculture Journal 63 (Sept. 2018), no. 3, 229-236. [3] J. M. Foley, A. M. Verhoff, J. J. Pitre, and K. M. Ropella, Workshops on fundamental engineering skills: A graduate student-led teaching initiative paper, 2014 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition (Indianapolis, Indiana), American Society for Engineering Education, June 2014, https://peer.asee.org/22794. [4] D. Fowler and C. Cherrstrom, Graduate student perception if teaching development in a college teaching course, North American College and Teachers of Agriculture Journal 61 (June 2017), no. 2, 150-156. [5] S. Freeman, S. L. Eddy, M. McDonough, M. K. Smith, N. Okoroafor, Hannah Jordt, and M. P. Wenderoth, Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (2014), no. 23, 8410-8415, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1319030111. [6] M. Graham, J. Frederick, A. Byars-Winston, A.B. Hunter, and J. Handelsman, Increasing persistence of college students in stems, Science Education 341 (27 Sep. 2013), no. 6153, 1455-1456, DOI: 10.1126/science.1240487. [7] D. Haak, J. HilleRisLambers, E. Pitre, and S. Freeman, Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology, Science Education 332 (June 3rd 2011), no. 6034, 1213-1216. [8] R.A.Haley,J.R.Ringo,H.Hopgood,K.L.Denlinger,DasA.,andD.C.Waddell,Graduate student designed and delivered: An upper-level online course for undergraduates in green chemistry and sustainability, Journal of Chemical Education 95 (2018), no. 4, 560-569, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.7b00730. [9] M. Kogan and S. Laursen, Assessing long-term effects of inquiry-based learning: A case study from college mathematics, Innovative Higher Education 39 (2014), 183-199, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-013-9269-9. [10] S. Laursen, M. L. Hassi, M. Kogan, and A. B. Hunter, Evaluation of the ibl mathematics project: Student and instructor outcomes of inquiry-based learning in college mathematics, Retrieved from https://www.colorado.edu/eer/sites/default/files/attached- files/iblmathexecsumm050511.pdf [11] Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, Active learning in post-secondary mathematics education, Retrieved from http://www.cbmsweb.org/Statements/Active Learning Statement.pdf [12] B Patterson, O.W. Garza, M.J. Witry, E.H. Chang, D.E. Letendre, and C.B. Trewet, Student leadership, a leadership elective course developed and taught by graduate students, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 77 (2013), no. 10, 1-12. [13] N. Zuo, J. Penn, and M. Asgari, Teaching as a graduate student: A one-credit teaching module case, North American College and Teachers of Agriculture Journal 62 (Dec. 2018), no. 4, 359-364.
    • Peer Mentors Improve Academic Outcomes in Student Centered Psychology Research Methods and Statistics

      Pilot, Zachery; Surprise, Malinda; Dinius, Cassandra; Olechowski, Alicia; Habib, Reza
      Students often enter undergraduate research methods and statistics (RMS) courses with trepidation (Dempster & McCorry, 2009;?Freng, Webber, Blatter, Wing, & Scott, 2011;?Vittengl et al., 2004) fueled by factors including a fear of being under prepared for the material (Hudak & Anderson, 1990), believing that traditional lectures are passive (Gasiewski, Eagan, Garcia, Hurtado, & Chang, 2012), and being anxious about learning statistics (Macher, Paechter, Papousek, & Ruggeri, 2012). We redesigned our RMS course to be student-centered, involving a semester long research project, and including problem-based learning activities to mitigate student concern about RMS courses. We predicted that support from peer mentors would serve as scaffolding for student development in multiple domains, helping them successfully navigate the course and result in improved academic performance (Chi, Siler, Jeong, Yamauchi, & Hausmann, 2001). In the first semester of the study (Fall 2016), one section of the RMS course was taught with the inclusion of peer-mentors in the classroom (experimental condition), while the other section was taught in a traditional format (without peer-mentors; control condition). In the second semester of the study (Spring 2017), both sections of the RMS course employed peer-mentors in the classroom. A MANCOVA was conducted to assess the impact of the presence of peer-mentors in the classroom on exam performance while controlling for background variables. A 2 Classroom (A vs. B) by 2 Semester (Fall 2016 vs. Spring 2017) by 4 Evaluations (Test 1, Test 2, Test 3, Final Exam) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted with 2 pretests as covariates. There was a significant main effect of Classroom, F (1, 164) = 12.54, p < 0.001; ?MS?_e = 0.047. Two separate MANCOVAs were conducted to examine these differences. For Fall 2016, there was a main effect of Classroom, F (1, 86) = 12.78, p < 0.001; ?MS?_e= 0.044. For Spring 2017, the only effect to reach significance was the Classroom x Evaluation 2-way interaction, F (3, 228) = 2.90, p < 0.05; ?MS?_e= 0.010. The results revealed larger differences between the RMS sections during the first semester (Fall 2016) of the study where the sections differed with respect to the presence of peer-mentors in the classroom (control vs. experimental sections) than in the second semester (Spring 2017) of the study where both sections employed peer-mentors. The findings are in line with the hypotheses: students who received support and guidance from peer mentors fared better than their counterparts in the classroom without peer mentors. These results suggest that tailoring mentoring programs to specific issues within gatekeeper courses has a positive impact on student academic performance and may help in retaining those students within the major (Seymour, 2011).
    • Self-regulated studying behavior, and the social norms that influence it

      Eyink, Julie; Motz, Benjamin; Heltzel, Gordon; Liddell, Torrin
      Since the seminal studies of Asch (1956) and Sherif (1936), decades of work show how others' actions and beliefs powerfully influence our own behaviors. Generally, people conform to the behaviors of others to either gain social approval (normative social influence) or to find suitable, effective behaviors in uncertain situations (informational social influence; e.g. Deutsch & Gerard, 1955). These two different motives correspond to different types of normative information: injunctive and descriptive norms, respectively. Injunctive norms tell us what we should or ought to do, and therefore refer to actions that others in a group approve of. They both prescribe accepted actions and proscribe inappropriate be? haviors. If individuals adhere to these norms, they receive social acceptance; conversely, if one disregards these norms, the threat of social sanctions looms (Cialdini & Trost, 1998; Jacobson, Mortensen, & Cialdini, 2011). In contrast, descriptive norms provide information about the actions most others actually do in a given context, offering a consensus about which behaviors are likely to be effective (Jacobson et al., 2011; Kelley, 1967). Because individuals want to be accurate (Lundgren & Prislin, 1998), they adapt their behaviors to that of the group, particularly when situations are ambiguous, uncertain, or novel (Sherif, 1936). In educational contexts, it seems clear to us that teachers use injunctive norms when telling students what they should do (e.g. Dunlosky et al. 2013). But researchers sometimes find descriptive norms more powerfully influence behavior (e.g. Goldstein et al., 2008). In the present work, we examine which type of norm is more effective at increasing self?regulated studying and performance in an online college course across two semesters. To do this, we randomly assigned 751 undergraduate Introductory Psychology students to receive email messages at the start of every content unit that either contained descriptive norms, injunctive norms, information about the course, or a no message control. Using Bayesian estimation, we found injunctive norms increased study behaviors aimed at fulfilling course requirements (completion of assigned activities), but did not improve learning outcomes. Descriptive norms increased behaviors aimed at improving knowledge (ungraded practice with activities after they were due), and improved performance. These results suggest that norms more effectively influence behavior when there is a match, or a sense of fit, between the goal of the behavior (fulfilling course requirements vs. learning) and the pull of a stated norm (social approval vs. efficacy). Because the goal of education is learning, this suggests descriptive norms have a greater value for motivating self-regulated study in authentic learning environments.